Robotics began as a science fiction creation which has become quite real, first in assembly line operations such as automobile manufacturing, airplane construction etc. They have now reached such areas as the ever-multiplying - medical field. Robotic surgery is now becoming highly practised in open heart, lung, and other forms of surgery. This book covers the developing stages of robotic surgery and its expectations in the medical field.
Surgical robotics is a rapidly evolving field. With roots in academic research, surgical robotic systems are now clinically used across a wide spectrum of surgical procedures. Surgical Robotics: Systems Applications and Visions provides a comprehensive view of the field both from the research and clinical perspectives. This volume takes a look at surgical robotics from four different perspectives, addressing vision, systems, engineering development and clinical applications of these technologies. The book also: -Discusses specific surgical applications of robotics that have already been deployed in operating rooms -Covers specific engineering breakthroughs that have occurred in surgical robotics -Details surgical robotic applications in specific disciplines of surgery including orthopedics, urology, cardiac surgery, neurosurgery, ophthalmology, pediatric surgery and general surgery Surgical Robotics: Systems Applications and Visions is an ideal volume for researchers and engineers working in biomedical engineering.
Robotics in General Surgery provides a comprehensive review of the current applications of the robotic platform in all the general surgery subspecialties. Additionally, for each subspecialty it serves as a procedure-oriented instruction manual in terms of technical details of procedures, including fundamentals of robot positioning and trocar placement, step-by-step description of procedures, comprehensive discussions of advantages, limitations, indications, and relative contraindications of using the robotic approach. The text also discusses the challenges and steps to overcoming these challenges in transitioning from a minimally invasive to a robotic practice/surgeon. Lastly, this volume addresses emerging technology in robotics and the impact that the robotics platform will have on not only practice of surgery, but also in the education of surgeons at all levels. Written by experts in the field of robotic surgery, Robotics in General Surgery is a valuable resource for general surgeons of all levels including residents, fellows and surgeons already in practice.
For every complex and expensive system, there emerges a need for training devices and scenarios that will assist new learners in mastering the use of the device and understanding how to apply it with value. This has proven to be true in aviation, nuclear power control, and medicine among other fields. Laparoscopic surgery simulators have played a valuable role in improving the practice of surgery over the last 20 years and the same trends and values will likely apply in robotic surgery. The complexity, criticality, and cost associated with the effective application of the da Vinci surgical robot have stimulated the commercial creation of simulators which replicate the operations of this robot. Each of these simulators provides a slightly different perspective and solution to the problem. This book explores the characteristics and differences between all of the currently available devices. The details provided here are structured to equip readers with sufficient knowledge about the simulators to make their own decisions about which best meets their needs. Each of them possesses unique traits which make them valuable solutions for different types of users. It is not our intent to make a universal recommendation of one device over the others. Readers should draw their own conclusions based on their unique needs for a device. The three current simulation devices for the da Vinci robot are the: da Vinci Skills Simulator (Intuitive Surgical Inc.), dV-Trainer (Mimic Technologies Inc.) and Robotic Surgery Simulator (Simulated Surgical Systems LLC). The three simulators which are described in this book offer a different value proposition to potential purchasers and to novice learners. The da Vinci Skills Simulator, dV-Trainer, an RoSS are complex systems which are significantly less costly than the actual da Vinci robotic surgical system and can be operated at a fraction of the cost of the instruments required for this robot. The intent of this book is to present the characteristics of each system to enable intelligent and informed purchasing and usage decisions.
Surgical robots are evolving, with newer systems incorporating teleoperation, virtual reality training, and more procedures. These miniaturized surgical robotic instruments fit through a series of quarter-inch incisions unlike the large incisions of man-held surgery. This book enlightens the application of robots in surgery. The ultimate aim of this book is to provide the surgeon with unprecedented control in a minimally invasive environment.
Head and neck surgery for benign and malignant disease is undergoing a groundbreaking transformation. Robot-assisted surgery is quickly being recognized as a significant innovation, demonstrating the potential to change treatment paradigms for head and neck disease. State-of-the-art robotics enables surgeons to access complex anatomy using a more minimally invasive approach, with the potential to improve patient outcome and reduce surgical morbidity. Learn from international clinicians who have pioneered new paths in the application of robotic-assisted surgery. Throughout the 16 chapters of this book, the authors provide comprehensive discussion of robotic surgical procedures for diseases affecting the oropharynx, larynx, hypopharynx, parapharyngeal space, thyroid, neck, and skull base. Key Features: Fundamental training and education—from ethical considerations and room set-up—to avoiding complications and clinical pearls Ten videos on the treatment of squamous and spindle cell carcinomas 150 superb illustrations enhance the didactic text Although further innovations and refinement of this technology will be forthcoming, the current state of robotic surgery encompassed in these pages lays a foundation for today and inspiration for tomorrow’s advancements. The book is an invaluable resource for surgeons and residents interested in learning about and incorporating surgical robotics into otolaryngology practice, and will also benefit medical and radiation oncologists.
Advances in research have led to the use of robotics in a range of surgical applications. Medical robotics: Minimally invasive surgery provides authoritative coverage of the core principles, applications and future potential of this enabling technology. Beginning with an introduction to robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery (MIS), the core technologies of the field are discussed, including localization and tracking technologies for medical robotics. Key applications of robotics in laparoscopy, neurology, cardiovascular interventions, urology and orthopaedics are considered, as well as applications for ear, nose and throat (ENT) surgery, vitreoretinal surgery and natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES). Microscale mobile robots for the circulatory system and mesoscale robots for the gastrointestinal tract are investigated, as is MRI-based navigation for in vivo magnetic microrobots. Finally, the book concludes with a discussion of ethical issues related to the use of robotics in surgery. With its distinguished editor and international team of expert contributors, Medical robotics: Minimally invasive surgery is a comprehensive guide for all those working in the research, design, development and application of medical robotics for surgery. It also provides an authoritative introduction for academics and medical practitioners working in this field. Provides authoritative coverage of the core principles, applications and future potential of medical robotics Introduces robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery (MIS), including the core technologies of the field and localization and tracking technologies for medical robotics Considers key applications of robotics in laparoscopy, neurology, cardiovascular interventions, urology and orthopaedics
Robotic technology has increasingly been preferred by the medical professionals since they have been used for several clinical applications. Medical robots are preferred since they present better results compared to traditional methods such as smaller incision, higher accuracy, and lesser recovery time. Medical robots can be divided into three progressive generations. The first-generation robots were originally industrial robots that had been modified for performing medical applications in orthopedics, neurosurgery, radiology, and radiotherapy in the 1980s. The second-generation robots have been especially developed for executing surgical operations in the 1990s. After the 2000s, the third-generation medical robots have been designed for performing difficult surgical and medical operations. From the first approved surgical robot AESOP to the current da Vinci Surgical System, there have been several different kinds of surgical robots produced until now. Although the history of surgical robots is very short compared to the history of surgery, thousands of surgical robots have been installed in hospitals worldwide, and hundreds of thousands of people have been treated by these surgical robots. Nowadays, the achievements of the surgical robotics amaze both medical professionals and the patients. It is noteworthy to follow up on the evolution of surgical robotics in the future.
The Encyclopedia of Medical Robotics combines contributions in four distinct areas of Medical robotics, namely: Minimally Invasive Surgical Robotics, Micro and Nano Robotics in Medicine, Image-guided Surgical Procedures and Interventions, and Rehabilitation Robotics. The volume on Minimally Invasive Surgical Robotics focuses on robotic technologies geared towards challenges and opportunities in minimally invasive surgery and the research, design, implementation and clinical use of minimally invasive robotic systems. The volume on Micro and Nano robotics in Medicine is dedicated to research activities in an area of emerging interdisciplinary technology that is raising new scientific challenges and promising revolutionary advancement in applications such as medicine and biology. The size and range of these systems are at or below the micrometer scale and comprise assemblies of micro and nanoscale components. The volume on Image-guided Surgical Procedures and Interventions focuses primarily on the use of image guidance during surgical procedures and the challenges posed by various imaging environments and how they related to the design and development of robotic systems as well as their clinical applications. This volume also has significant contributions from the clinical viewpoint on some of the challenges in the domain of image-guided interventions. Finally, the volume on Rehabilitation Robotics is dedicated to the state-of-the-art of an emerging interdisciplinary field where robotics, sensors, and feedback are used in novel ways to re-learn, improve, or restore functional movements in humans. Volume 1, Minimally Invasive Surgical Robotics, focuses on an area of robotic applications that was established in the late 1990s, after the first robotics-assisted minimally invasive surgical procedure. This area has since received significant attention from industry and researchers. The teleoperated and ergonomic features of these robotic systems for minimally invasive surgery (MIS) have been able to reduce or eliminate most of the drawbacks of conventional (laparoscopic) MIS. Robotics-assisted MIS procedures have been conducted on over 3 million patients to date — primarily in the areas of urology, gynecology and general surgery using the FDA approved da Vinci® surgical system. The significant commercial and clinical success of the da Vinci® system has resulted in substantial research activity in recent years to reduce invasiveness, increase dexterity, provide additional features such as image guidance and haptic feedback, reduce size and cost, increase portability, and address specific clinical procedures. The area of robotic MIS is therefore in a state of rapid growth fueled by new developments in technologies such as continuum robotics, smart materials, sensing and actuation, and haptics and teleoperation. An important need arising from the incorporation of robotic technology for surgery is that of training in the appropriate use of the technology, and in the assessment of acquired skills. This volume covers the topics mentioned above in four sections. The first section gives an overview of the evolution and current state the da Vinci® system and clinical perspectives from three groups who use it on a regular basis. The second focuses on the research, and describes a number of new developments in surgical robotics that are likely to be the basis for the next generation of robotic MIS systems. The third deals with two important aspects of surgical robotic systems — teleoperation and haptics (the sense of touch). Technology for implementing the latter in a clinical setting is still very much at the research stage. The fourth section focuses on surgical training and skills assessment necessitated by the novelty and complexity of the technologies involved and the need to provide reliable and efficient training and objective assessment in the use of robotic MIS systems. In Volume 2, Micro and Nano Robotics in Medicine, a brief historical overview of the field of medical nanorobotics as well as the state-of-the-art in the field is presented in the introductory chapter. It covers the various types of nanorobotic systems, their applications and future directions in this field. The volume is divided into three themes related to medical applications. The first theme describes the main challenges of microrobotic design for propulsion in vascular media. Such nanoscale robotic agents are envisioned to revolutionize medicine by enabling minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. To be useful, nanorobots must be operated in complex biological fluids and tissues, which are often difficult to penetrate. In this section, a collection of four papers review the potential medical applications of motile nanorobots, catalytic-based propelling agents, biologically-inspired microrobots and nanoscale bacteria-enabled autonomous drug delivery systems. The second theme relates to the use of micro and nanorobots inside the body for drug-delivery and surgical applications. A collection of six chapters is presented in this segment. The first chapter reviews the different robot structures for three different types of surgery, namely laparoscopy, catheterization, and ophthalmic surgery. It highlights the progress of surgical microrobotics toward intracorporeally navigated mechanisms for ultra-minimally invasive interventions. Then, the design of different magnetic actuation platforms used in micro and nanorobotics are described. An overview of magnetic actuation-based control methods for microrobots, with eventually biomedical applications, is also covered in this segment. The third theme discusses the various nanomanipulation strategies that are currently used in biomedicine for cell characterization, injection, fusion and engineering. In-vitro (3D) cell culture has received increasing attention since it has been discovered to provide a better simulation environment of in-vivo cell growth. Nowadays, the rapid progress of robotic technology paves a new path for the highly controllable and flexible 3D cell assembly. One chapter in this segment discusses the applications of micro-nano robotic techniques for 3D cell culture using engineering approaches. Because cell fusion is important in numerous biological events and applications, such as tissue regeneration and cell reprogramming, a chapter on robotic-tweezers cell manipulation system to achieve precise laser-induced cell fusion using optical trapping has been included in this volume. Finally, the segment ends with a chapter on the use of novel MEMS-based characterization of micro-scale tissues instead of mechanical characterization for cell lines studies. Volume 3, Image-guided Surgical Procedures and Interventions, focuses on several aspects ranging from understanding the challenges and opportunities in this domain, to imaging technologies, to image-guided robotic systems for clinical applications. The volume includes several contributions in the area of imaging in the areas of X-Ray fluoroscopy, CT, PET, MR Imaging, Ultrasound imaging, and optical coherence tomography. Ultrasound-based diagnostics and therapeutics as well as ultrasound-guided planning and navigation are also included in this volume in addition to multi-modal imaging techniques and its applications to surgery and various interventions. The application of multi-modal imaging and fusion in the area of prostate biopsy is also covered. Imaging modality compatible robotic systems, sensors and actuator technologies for use in the MRI environment are also included in this work., as is the development of the framework incorporating image-guided modeling for surgery and intervention. Finally, there are several chapters in the clinical applications domain covering cochlear implant surgery, neurosurgery, breast biopsy, prostate cancer treatment, endovascular interventions, neurovascular interventions, robotic capsule endoscopy, and MRI-guided neurosurgical procedures and interventions. Volume 4, Rehabilitation Robotics, is dedicated to the state-of-the-art of an emerging interdisciplinary field where robotics, sensors, and feedback are used in novel ways to relearn, improve, or restore functional movements in humans. This volume attempts to cover a number of topics relevant to the field. The first section addresses an important activity in our daily lives: walking, where the neuromuscular system orchestrates the gait, posture, and balance. Conditions such as stroke, vestibular deficits, or old age impair this important activity. Three chapters on robotic training, gait rehabilitation, and cooperative orthoses describe the current works in the field to address this issue. The second section covers the significant advances in and novel designs of soft actuators and wearable systems that have emerged in the area of prosthetic lower limbs and ankles in recent years, which offer potential for both rehabilitation and human augmentation. These are described in two chapters. The next section addresses an important emphasis in the field of medicine today that strives to bring rehabilitation out from the clinic into the home environment, so that these medical aids are more readily available to users. The current state-of-the-art in this field is described in a chapter. The last section focuses on rehab devices for the pediatric population. Their impairments are life-long and rehabilitation robotics can have an even bigger impact during their lifespan. In recent years, a number of new developments have been made to promote mobility, socialization, and rehabilitation among the very young: the infants and toddlers. These aspects are summarized in two chapters of this volume.
"The use of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) in gynecologic oncology has been limited despite an exponential growth in some other specialties. Technological advances in the field of robotics may facilitate the application of MIS, thereby allowing more patients to benefit from the less invasive procedure. Despite the rising popularity of robotic surgery, questions remain as to its clinical and cost-effectiveness, contributing to resistance to changes in clinical practice and thus impeding its growth.The objective of the current thesis was to evaluate the clinical and financial outcomes, from the perspective of patients and of the hospital, following the introduction of a robotic surgery program in gynecologic oncology.Where applicable, data was retrieved from electronic health records, hospital information systems, and a series of retrospective and prospectively managed databases in the Division of Gynecologic Oncology at a tertiary center in Canada. Patient-level data included baseline characteristics, diagnostic information, operative outcomes, clinical outcomes, self-reported questionnaires, and resource use. All studies were approved by the institution's internal review board.The use of robotics in gynecologic oncology was found to result in a relatively rapid return to preoperative quality of life and patient-rated pain. Compared to open surgery, patients who underwent robotic surgery for the treatment of endometrial cancer used significantly less analgesics, including less opioids and a diminished use of patient-controlled analgesia, and this was associated with a decrease in direct costs for the hospital. In ovarian cancer, where the use of robotics is rare, the approach was found to be feasible, improved perioperative results while maintaining oncologic outcomes, and was, on average, less expensive than open surgery. From the perspective of the hospital, the use of robotics largely replaced the use of open surgery, was found to decrease resource utilization and increase turnover on the inpatient ward, and was associated with a return on investment in the current setting.The use of robotics in gynecologic oncology continues to expand. Insofar as its use in the setting examined, the current thesis demonstrates the clinical benefits of the procedure, the ability to achieve operational efficiencies and cost savings, and the potential to be a valuable investment in a high-volume center. The conceivable areas of innovation envisioned with such a technological platform are explored." --
Robotic Urologic Surgery is a technical manual for various robotic approaches to surgical procedures, with helpful hints for avoiding pitfalls. The book shows how to develop a successful robotics program, learn the various techniques, and improve outcomes. Leading robotic urologic surgeons worldwide contribute chapters. The body of available data is reviewed in table format and supported by schematic diagrams and anatomic photographs to illustrate the concept being discussed. An accompanying DVD gives instructional content. This book is essential reading for all urologists as a reference to establish a robotics program, refine their surgical technique and provide information to patients.
Minimally invasive surgery has become the standard treatment for many diseases and conditions. In the last decade, numerous studies have demonstrated that laparoscopic approaches have improved patients’ quality of life if compared with standard open procedures. Atlas of Single-Port, Laparoscopic, and Robotic Surgery serves as a guide in single-port, standard laparoscopy, and robotic surgery and shows how novel techniques, such as single-port laparoscopy and robotics, have recently evolved. The atlas illustrates the unique challenges that the new single-port surgery modality presents, including instruments crowding and articulation, and the advanced laparoscopic skills required to perform these procedures, such as the ability to move and control a flexible camera. It also illustrates how to efficiently and safely utilize the robot to perform most gynecologic procedures. This exceptional resource provides students, residents, fellows, operating room personnel, and practicing gynecologic surgeons with invaluable information about instrumentation, surgical technique, port systems, and the current research and development in robotics.
Mini-invasive surgery deserves increasing attention to lower post-operative stays in hospitals and to lessen fall-off complications. This new book is devoted to surgical robotics, with a focus on technology and design issues of the remote-mode operation assistants. The investigation leads to define the technical characteristics of a CRHA, co-robotic handling appliance, to be purposely developed, to support the duty-split approach surgical planner.
A unique how-to guide for spine surgeons on state-of-the-art computer-assisted navigation and robotic surgery techniques The past decade has seen major advances in image-guided spine surgery techniques, with robotically assisted approaches emerging in the last five years. While early adopters of this technology paved the way for more widespread use of navigated and robotic systems, barriers still exist. Navigation and Robotics in Spine Surgery by master spine surgeon Alexander Vaccaro and esteemed co-editors Jaykar Panchmatia, I. David Kaye, and Srinivas Prasad addresses existing issues such as the perception of increased upfront costs, intrusion on current workflow, and a lack of understanding about the potential ways these technologies can enhance the surgical experience and improve patient outcomes. Organized into six sections, the book starts with evidence-based fundamentals of navigated spine surgery and robotics including discussion of instrumentation and mechanics. Sections 2-5 serve as a surgical handbook for spine surgeons who wish to introduce these technologies into practice or augment their current repertoire with more complex techniques. Topics range from more routine procedures such as navigated and robotic minimally invasive TLIF to complex approaches like intraoperative ultrasound guided intradural spinal tumor resection. The final section looks at future directions and potential new applications for these technologies. Key Highlights An impressive group of international spine surgeons who pioneered navigation and robotic surgery techniques share invaluable tricks of the trade Discussion of fluoroscopy- and intraoperative CT-based platforms, applications for intraoperative sonography, and radiation exposure and minimization strategies Special topics include OR set-up and workflow, surmounting the learning curve, artificial intelligence, and lessons learned from other industries Procedural videos demonstrate the benefits of computer-assisted navigation and robotic techniques This book is essential reading for orthopaedic surgery and neurosurgery residents and spine fellows who wish to learn about and incorporate these technologies into practice. Seasoned spine surgeons seeking to expand the scope of their navigated/robotic practice will benefit from chapters detailing advanced approaches.
The field of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has now taken centre stage in modern clinical practice. With ever changing technologies in the field of MIS, such as robotics, there is now the need to train the surgeon to the next degree. Training by simulation, whether virtual, hybrid, or real, allows the surgeon to rehearse, learn, improve or maintain their skills in a safe and stress free environment. Simulation Training in Laparoscopy and Robotic Surgery gives a true insight into the latest educational and learning techniques for new technologies in surgery. Written by an international team of experts, this illustrated text provides advice on specialised team training, non technical skills and simulation. Simulation Training in Laparoscopy and Robotic Surgery is an important training aide for surgeons and residents interested in developing skills in this field.
Robotics in Genito-Urinary Surgery fills the void of information on robotic urological surgery; a topic that is currently highly in demand and continuously increasing. This book provides detailed information on the utility of robotic urological surgery and how to use it most effectively. Robotics in Genito-Urinary Surgery comprehensively covers specialist areas such as female urology, pelvic floor reconstructions and holds a strong focus on pediatric urology. It also presents the main operative techniques through the use of high quality images and drawings. Compiled by expert authors from the USA, Europe and Asia, this book provides an international perspective on the basic knowledge and clinical management required for the optimal care of patients.
After nearly three decades of pioneering work, the field of robotic surgery is advancing into the next phase of development: Mainstream adoption. Robotic Surgery: Clinical Perceptions, Approaches and Challenges intends to function as an illustrative and descriptive guide for both the burgeoning and experienced robotic surgeon. Its scope includes what the authors consider the Pillars of Robotic Surgery urology, gynecology, general surgery, cardiac, and thoracic surgery while also expanding on these disciplines to include otolaryngology, benign reconstructive urology, urogynecology, bariatrics, and hepatobiliary. Equally important to detailing the surgery itself, but unique to Robotic Surgery: Clinical Perceptions, Approaches and Challenges are the discussions focusing on the most recent data, the benefits and the risks associated with robotic surgery. Each chapters authors are master surgeons within their field and their insights demonstrate why robotics has been so important to each of the surgical disciplines. Robotic surgery is at a significant intersection of technology and the ability to routinely perform high-end minimal invasive surgery. Robotic Surgery: Clinical Perceptions, Approaches and Challenges is the robotic surgeons manual to help achieve the technical and intellectual metrics desired by all surgeons.
This new reference is devoted to the exploding area of robotic-assisted urologic surgery. It covers setting up robotics and instrumentation, as well as adapting laparoscopic equipment to this exciting new technology. It also guides you through a full range of robotic procedures including prostatectomy, which is experiencing significant success and patient satisfaction by using robotic technology, as well as nephrectomy, adrenalectomy, vasovasostomy, and pediatric procedures. Full color illustrations help familiarize you with the latest surgical techniques and instrumentation. Learn about the indications for robotic urologic surgery and the potential improvements in patient outcomes. Covers all urologic procedures that are adaptable to robotic technology with chapters on cystectomy, nephrectomy, prostatectomy, vasovasostomy, and adrenalectomy. Offers full color images of procedures to enhance surgical concepts.