Biomaterials have had a major impact on the practice of contemporary medicine and patient care. Growing into a major interdisciplinary effort involving chemists, biologists, engineers, and physicians, biomaterials development has enabled the creation of high-quality devices, implants, and drug carriers with greater biocompatibility and biofunctionality. The fast-paced research and increasing interest in finding new and improved biocompatible or biodegradable polymers has provided a wealth of new information, transforming this edition of Polymeric Biomaterials into a two-volume set. This volume, Polymeric Biomaterials: Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Applications, contains 28 authoritative chapters written by experts from around the world. Contributors cover the following topics: Processing polymeric biomaterials into specific forms that ensure biocompatibility and biodegradability for use in various applications in the medical and pharmaceutical arenas Use of biomaterials to address medical issues such as pulmonary disease, cancer, heart disease, tissue damage, and bone disease Applications including a variety of drug delivery systems, medical devices, anticancer therapies, biological uses for hydrogels, nanotechnology, bioartificial organs, and tissue engineering Completely revised and expanded, this state-of-the-art reference presents recent developments in polymeric biomaterials and the most up-to-date applications of biomaterials in medicine.
Biomaterials have had a major impact on the practice of contemporary medicine and patient care. Growing into a major interdisciplinary effort involving chemists, biologists, engineers, and physicians, biomaterials development has enabled the creation of high-quality devices, implants, and drug carriers with greater biocompatibility and biofunctionality. The fast-paced research and increasing interest in finding new and improved biocompatible or biodegradable polymers has provided a wealth of new information, transforming this edition of Polymeric Biomaterials into a two-volume set. This volume, Polymeric Biomaterials: Structure and Function, contains 25 authoritative chapters written by experts from around the world. Contributors cover the following topics: The structure and properties of synthetic polymers including polyesters, polyphosphazenes, and elastomers The structure and properties of natural polymers such as mucoadhesives, chitin, lignin, and carbohydrate derivatives Blends and composites—for example, metal–polymer composites and biodegradable polymeric/ceramic composites Bioresorbable hybrid membranes, drug delivery systems, cell bioassay systems, electrospinning for regenerative medicine, and more Completely revised and expanded, this state-of-the-art reference presents recent developments in polymeric biomaterials: from their chemical, physical, and structural properties to polymer synthesis and processing techniques and current applications in the medical and pharmaceutical fields.
Characterization of Polymeric Biomaterials presents a comprehensive introduction on the topic before discussing the morphology and surface characterization of biomedical polymers. The structural, mechanical, and biological characterization is described in detail, followed by invaluable case studies of polymer biomaterial implants. With comprehensive coverage of both theoretical and experimental information, this title will provide scientists with an essential guide on the topic of these materials which are regularly used for clinical applications, such as implants and drug delivery devices. However, a range of novel polymers and the development and modification of existing medical polymers means that there is an ongoing need to satisfy particular design requirements. This book explains the critical and fundamentals methods to characterize polymer materials for biomedical applications. Presents a self-contained reference on the characterization of polymeric biomaterials Provides comprehensive information on how to characterize biomedical polymers in order to improve design and synthesis Includes useful case studies that demonstrate the characterization of biomaterial implants
Applications of synthetic materials in medicine date back over 4000 year2. The Egyptians used linen as sutures. In the Roman Empire, gold was used in dentistry. Perhaps even earlier, ivory and bone may have been used in the body by practitioners of the healing arts. The historical origins of modem biomaterials science are also hard to precisely trace, but many of the ideas that define biomaterials as we know them today evolved in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Surface modification technology has played a prominent role in biomaterials science, and has paralleled the evolution of the modem field. In a symposium organized by the Artifical Heart Program of the NIH National Heart Institute and the Artificial Kidney program of the NIH National Institute of Arthritis and Metabolic Diseases, held in Atlantic City, New Jersey, in 1968, there were already a number of presentations on surface modification. Surface characterization at that time included scanning electron microscopy, ellipsometry, contact angle methods, and infrared internal reflection methods.
Polymers and polymer-based composites possess a wide spectrum of properties, which allow them to be used in a diverse range of medical applications. This volume in the book series New Concepts in Polymer Science deals with the application features of polymeric implants, their interaction with surrounding living tissues, the demands imposed upon the objects implanted and polymeric materials used for their manufacture, and the main types of polymers applied and their properties.Chapters 1-8 are devoted to various polymer applications in medical and biological fields; chapters 9-10 consider individual polymeric materials used in this field.This monograph is designed for use as a textbook for specializations in chemical and technological courses in universities, as well as a methodical manual and directory for scientists and researchers in both academia and industry.
Tradi tionally, the International lTV - Conferences on Biomate rials are focussing on problems in Biomedical Engineering, problems, which are still unsolved, of main interest, and which are of interdisciplinary character. In 1983, the Division of Biomedical Engineering of the Institute of Textile Technology and Chemical Engineering, Denkendorf, started wi th a conference about the use of polyurethanes in biomedicine. Three years later,. in 1986, progress in development and use of polyurethanes was selected as conference topic. It had to be realized that degradation problems were still dominating the discussions. The main discussion topics were: What are the causes for the degradation? How can one prevent them? What are the degradation products, and do they affect the human body? How can one simu late the degradation? How can one accelerate the in vitro tests and how can the results predict the in vivo behaviour of the material? How do in vitro tests correlate with animal tests and the behaviour in the human body? At the third conference in 1989, the speakers focused on the use of textiles in medicine. Again the problem of degradation was discussed intensively and demonstrated by the failure of textile implants, the degradation of aramide polymers or the degradation of resorbable suture materials. The examples make clear, that degradation may be a desired or undesired property of an implant.
Biomaterials work in contact with living matter and this gives a number of specific requirements for their surface properties, such as bioinertness or bioactivity, antibiofouling, and so on. Surface engineering based on physical, chemical, physical-chemical, biochemical or biological principles is important for the preparation of biomaterials with the desired biocontact properties. This book helps the reader gain the knowledge to enable them to work in such a rapidly developing area, with a comprehensive list of references given for each chapter. Strategies for tailoring the biological response through the creation of biomaterial surfaces resistant to fouling are discussed. Methods of eliciting specific biomolecular interactions that can be further combined with patterning techniques to engineer adhesive areas in a noninteractive background are also covered. The theoretical basis of surface engineering for improvement of biocontact properties of polymeric biomaterials as well as the current state-of-the-art of the surface engineering of polymeric biomaterials are presented. The book also includes information on the most used conventional and advanced surface engineering methods. The book is targeted at researchers, post-doctorates, graduate students, and those already working in the field of biomaterials with a special interest in the creation of polymeric materials with improved biocontact properties via surface engineering.
Offering nearly 7000 references-3900 more than the first edition-Polymeric Biomaterials, Second Edition is an up-to-the-minute source for plastics and biomedical engineers, polymer scientists, biochemists, molecular biologists, macromolecular chemists, pharmacists, cardiovascular and plastic surgeons, and graduate and medical students in these disciplines. Completely revised and updated, it includes coverage of genetic engineering, synthesis of biodegradable polymers, hydrogels, and mucoadhesive polymers, as well as polymers for dermacosmetic treatments, burn and wound dressings, orthopedic surgery, artificial joints, vascular prostheses, and in blood contacting systems.
Significant efforts have been focused on preparing degradable polymeric biomaterials with controllable properties, which have the potential to stimulate specific cellular responses at the molecular level. "Click" reactions provide a universal tool box to achieve that goal through molecular level design and modification. This dissertation demonstrates multiple methodologies and techniques to develop advanced biomaterials through combining degradable polymers and "click" chemistry. In my initial work, a novel class of amino acid-based poly(ester urea)s (PEU) materials was designed and prepared for potential applications in bone defect treatment. PEUs were synthesized via interfacial polycondensation, and showed degradability in vivo and possessed mechanical strength superior to conventionally used polyesters. Further mechanical enhancement was achieved after covalent crosslinking with a short peptide crosslinker derived from osteogenic growth peptide (OGP). The in vitro and in an in vivo subcutaneous rat model demonstrated that the OGP-based crosslinkers promoted proliferative activity of cells and accelerated degradation properties of PEUs. As a continuous study, extra efforts were focused on the development of PEUs with functional pendant groups, including alkyne, azide, alkene, tyrosine phenol, and ketone groups. PEUs with Mw exceeding to 100K Da were obtained via interfacial polycondensation, and the concentration of pendent groups was varied using a copolymerization strategy. Electrospinning was used to fabricate PEU nanofiber matrices with mechanical strengths suitable for tissue engineering. A series of biomolecules were conjugated to nanofiber surface following electrospinning using "click" reactions in aqueous media. The ability to derivatize PEUs with biological motifs using high efficient chemical reactions will significantly expand their use in vitro and in vivo. Based on similar principles, a series of mono- and multifunctionalized polycaprolactone (PCL) bearing various "clickable" groups, including ketone, alkyne, azide, and methyl acrylate (MA), were synthesized via ring opening polymerization. A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) was used to quantify the rate and extent of surface conjugation between RGD peptides and polymer thin films. The successful conjugation was further confirmed by static contact angle and NMR measurements. QCM results also verified and quantified the sequential immobilization of peptides onto polymer films. Besides polymer functionalization "click" reactions were also utilized for hydrogel fabrication and post-gelation modification. Polyethylene glycol-based hydrogels were formed via oxime ligation. The gelation process and final mechanical strength of the hydrogels can be tuned using pH and the catalyst concentration. The time scale to reach the gel point and complete gelation, and the storage modulus of hydrogels can be tuned in two orders of magnitude. Azide- and alkene-functionalized hydrogels were also fabricated, and further post-gelation functionalization was achieved via alkyne-azide cycloaddition and thiol-ene radical addition for spatially defined peptide incorporation. These materials with tunable mechanical regimes and biomolecule patterns were attractive for soft tissue engineering.
gap always exists between the material performance generation of new molecules along with the release during in-vivo animal tests and clinical situations, of substances from a multitude of cells. The plasma because of the difference in individual reactions proteins (including coagulation and complement proteins), the blood cells deposited on the material between one animal and another and humans. Likewise, sophisticated in-vitro and in-vivo models surface or circulating in the blood stream and their are being developed to study living body responses. released substances take part in the dynamic process of fibrinolysis and thrombus formation. Progress has been achieved in culturing mammalian cells, particularly human cells, which has lead to new in-vitro models to study cell-biomaterial Tissue response interactions. These techniques are discussed in the other chapters of this volume. Materials implanted in tissues always generate a response. The major tissue response in the extra BIOLOGICAL MODIFICATION vascular system is an inflammatory process, which may be induced chemically or physically. Many Surfaces of polymeric biomaterials may be modified proteins and cells are involved in this very complex by using a variety of biological entities (e.g.
Biotechnology has the potential to improve people’s quality of life and holds the key to many unmet clinical needs. In the UK alone the biotechnology market is worth £4.5 billion and estimates of future growth range from 10 to 15%. This growth can only be driven by the increased use of inexpensive and easy to manufacture polymeric biomaterials. Although polymer science is a rapidly developing area of research, it remains that one of the most intractable problems encountered in biotechnology is that the performance of polymeric biomaterials depend upon both the bulk and surface properties. In this book the authors describe their work using lasers to modify the wettability characteristics of nylon 6,6 (as wetting is often the primary factor dictating the adhesion and bonding potential of materials) as a route to enhancing the surface in terms of in vitro osteoblast cell response. What is more, modifying wettability characteristics in this way is shown to be a highly attractive means of estimating the biofunctionality of a polymer. The book demonstrates and explains how the generation of a biomimetic surface on polymers using laser beams provides an in vitro platform on which to deposit and grow cells for either the development of implants or to reconstitute functional tissue. The correlative trends and generic characteristics which are identified in the book between the laser surface treatment, wettability characteristics and osteoblast cell response of the nylon 6,6 provide a means to estimate the osteoblast cell response in vivo. The book shows clearly that laser surface modification of polymeric materials has tremendous potential for application within the field of regenerative medicine.
The Concise Encyclopedia of Biomedical Polymers and Polymeric Biomaterials presents new and selected content from the 11-volume Biomedical Polymers and Polymeric Biomaterials Encyclopedia. The carefully culled content includes groundbreaking work from the earlier published work as well as exclusive online material added since its publication in print. A diverse and global team of renowned scientists provide cutting edge information concerning polymers and polymeric biomaterials. Acknowledging the evolving nature of the field, the encyclopedia also features newly added content in areas such as tissue engineering, tissue repair and reconstruction, and biomimetic materials.
The articles collected in this publication have previously been published in eight special issues of the Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition, in honour of Dr. Allan S. Hoffman, who is known as a pioneer, a leader and a mentor in the field of biomaterials. The papers from renowned scientists from all parts of the world, representing the state-of-the-art in polymeric biomaterials today, have been rearranged into a logical order of sections, each having a distinct focus. The topics covered are: Surface Modification, Characterization and Properties; Protein Adsorption; Blood Interactions; Cell Interactions; Immobilized Cell Receptor Ligands and Immobilized Cells; Immobilized Biomolecules and Synthetic Derivatives of Biomolecules; New Polymers and Applications; Biodegradable Polymers and Drug Delivery; Water-Soluble Biomolecules, Sunthetic Polymers, and their Conjugates; Hydrogels.
The biosafety of advanced polymeric biomaterials needs prediction, evaluation and indication on potential complications arising from their use and the formation of their degradation products. Thus, the methodology of forensic engineering of advanced polymeric materials (FEAPM) is currently being developed in the area of biocompatible polymers. This novel approach deals with the evaluation and understanding of the relationships between their structure, properties and behavior before, during and after practical applications. FEAPM provides a central driving force for the otherwise disconnected works and should help to design precisely structured polymer materials and to avoid potential failures of the commercial products manufactured from them. The selected prediction and case studies related with design of precisely structured polymer biomaterials for diverse applications in medicine and cosmetic industry will be presented. The molecular level characterization of polymers, including natural polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) and their synthetic analogues will be discussed.
The Encyclopedia of Biomedical Polymers & Polymeric Biomaterials presents state-of-the-art research and development on the application of novel polymers in a vital area. This groundbreaking work includes the insight of a large number of contributors from around the world who offer a broad-based perspective on a multitude of topics. Authoritative, dynamic, and comprehensive, this multi-volume reference covers the broad subject area of polymer applications in the medical field, providing readers with an enriching experience and targeted knowledge in this evolving arena. The materials presented convey important overviews to help stimulate further advancements in all areas of biomaterials and biomedical polymers. Additionally, they address and identify new breakthroughs and emerging technologies. Designed for novices to experienced researchers, the encyclopedia caters to engineers and scientists (polymer and materials scientists, biomedical engineers, biochemists, molecular biologists, macromolecular chemists), pharmacists, doctors, cardiovascular and plastic surgeons, and students, as well as general readers in academia, industry, research institutions, etc. It is envisioned that the encyclopedia will serve as the most respected reference work on the application of polymers in the medical field.
The Citus series on biomedical polymers is a unique source of systematic information, compiled for researchers in the chemical and life sciences, medical, biomedical and related industries.
While the prevalence of plastics and elastomers in medical devices is now quite well known, there is less information available covering the use of medical devices and the applications of polymers beyond medical devices, such as in hydrogels, biopolymers and silicones beyond enhancement applications, and few books in which these are combined into a single reference. This book is a comprehensive reference source, bringing together a number of key medical polymer topics in one place for a broad audience of engineers and scientists, especially those currently developing new medical devices or seeking more information about current and future applications. In addition to a broad range of applications, the book also covers clinical outcomes and complications arising from the use of the polymers in the body, giving engineers a vital insight into the real world implications of the devices they’re creating. Regulatory issues are also covered in detail. The book also presents the latest developments on the use of polymers in medicine and development of nano-scale devices. Gathers discussions of a large number of applications of polymers in medicine in one place Provides an insight into both the legal and clinical implications of device design Relevant to industry, academic and medical professionals Presents the latest developments in the field, including medical devices on a nano-scale
Polymers and polymer-based composites possess a wide spectrum of properties, which allow them to be used in a diverse range of medical applications. This volume in the book series New Concepts in Polymer Science deals with the application features of polymeric implants, their interaction with surrounding living tissues, the demands imposed upon the objects implanted and polymeric materials used for their manufacture, and the main types of polymers applied and their properties. Chapters 1-8 are devoted to various polymer applications in medical and biological fields; chapters 9-10 consider individual polymeric materials used in this field. This monograph is designed for use as a textbook for specializations in chemical and technological courses in universities, as well as a methodical manual and directory for scientists and researchers in both academia and industry.