Many Microorganisms and some macro-organisms can live under extreme conditions. For example, high and low temperature, acidic and alkaline conditions, high salt areas, high pressure, toxic compounds, high level of ionizing radiation, anoxia and absence of light, etc. Many organisms inhabit environments characterized by more than one form of stress (Polyextremophiles). Among them are those who live in hypersaline and alkaline, hot and acidic, cold/hot and high hydrostatic pressure, etc. Polyextremophiles found in desert regions have to copy with intense UV irradiation and desiccation, high as well as low temperatures, and low availability of water and nutrients. This book provides novel results of application to polyextremophiles research ranging from nanotechnology to synthetic biology to the origin of life and beyond.
Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Pages: 23. Chapters: Lichen, Antarctic microorganisms, Deinococcus radiodurans, Crenarchaeota, Isohypsibius, Thermoacidophile, Diphascon, Deinococcus-Thermus, Doryphoribius, Itaquascon, Eohypsibiidae, Polyextremophile, Echiniscus testudo, Microhypsibiidae, Platicrista, Necopinatidae, Mixibius, Parachaela, Parascon, Astatumen, Halobiotus, Hebesuncus, Thulinius, Mesocrista, Eremobiotus. Excerpt: Lichens (, sometimes ) are composite organisms consisting of a symbiotic association of a fungus (the mycobiont) with a photosynthetic partner (the photobiont or phycobiont), usually either a green alga (commonly Trebouxia) or cyanobacterium (commonly Nostoc). The morphology, physiology and biochemistry of lichens are very different from those of the isolated fungus and alga in culture. Lichens occur in some of the most extreme environments on Earth-arctic tundra, hot deserts, rocky coasts, and toxic slag heaps. However, they are also abundant as epiphytes on leaves and branches in rain forests and temperate woodland, on bare rock, including walls and gravestones, and on exposed soil surfaces (e.g., Collema) in otherwise mesic habitats. Lichens are widespread and may be long-lived; however, many are also vulnerable to environmental disturbance, and may be useful to scientists in assessing the effects of air pollution, ozone depletion, and metal contamination. Lichens have also been used in making dyes and perfumes, as well as in traditional medicines. The bodys (thallus) of most lichens is quite different from those of either the fungus or alga growing separately, and may strikingly resemble simple plants in form and growth. The fungus surrounds the algal cells, often enclosing them within complex fungal tissues unique to lichen associations. In many species the fungus penetrates the algal cell wall, forming penetration pegs or haustoria similar ...
This contributed volume sheds new light on waste management and the production of biofuels. The authors share insights into microbial applications to meet the challenges of environmental pollution and the ever- growing need for renewable energy. They also explain how healthy and balanced ecosystems can be created and maintained using strategies ranging from oil biodegration and detoxification of azo dyes to biofouling. In addition, the book illustrates how the metabolic abilities of microorganisms can be used in microbial fuel-cell technologies or for the production of biohydrogen. It inspires young researchers and experienced scientists in the field of microbiology to explore the application of green biotechnology for bioremediation and the production of energy, which will be one of the central topics for future generations.
A guide to understanding the formation of life in the Universe The revised and updated second edition of Astrobiology offers an introductory text that explores the structure of living things, the formation of the elements required for life in the Universe, the biological and geological history of the Earth, and the habitability of other planets. Written by a noted expert on the topic, the book examines many of the major conceptual foundations in astrobiology, which cover a diversity of traditional fields including chemistry, biology, geosciences, physics, and astronomy. The book explores many profound questions such as: How did life originate on Earth? How has life persisted on Earth for over three billion years? Is there life elsewhere in the Universe? What is the future of life on Earth? Astrobiology is centered on investigating the past and future of life on Earth by looking beyond Earth to get the answers. Astrobiology links the diverse scientific fields needed to understand life on our own planet and, potentially, life beyond. This new second edition: Expands on information about the nature of astrobiology and why it is useful Contains a new chapter “What is Life?” that explores the history of attempts to understand life Contains 20% more material on the astrobiology of Mars, icy moons, the structure of life, and the habitability of planets New ‘Discussion Boxes’ to stimulate debate and thought about key questions in astrobiology New review and reflection questions for each chapter to aid learning New boxes describing the careers of astrobiologists and how they got into the subject Offers revised and updated information throughout to reflect the latest advances in the field Written for students of life sciences, physics, astronomy and related disciplines, the updated edition of Astrobiology is an essential introductory text that includes recent advances to this dynamic field.
This volume is the result of a state-of-the-art symposium on biotechnology of anaerobic microbes, in honor of Professor Lars G. Ljungdahl on the occasion of his retirement and 80th birthday. The volume presents current work on the use of anaerobes for biomass conversion, cellulose degradation, and processes to produce alternative biofuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel. NOTE: Annals volumes are available for sale as individual books or as a journal. For information on institutional journal subscriptions, please visit www.blackwellpublishing.com/nyas. ACADEMY MEMBERS: Please contact the New York Academy of Sciences directly to place your order (www.nyas.org). Members of the New York Academy of Science receive full-text access to the Annals online and discounts on print volumes. Please visit www.nyas.org/membership/main.asp for more information about becoming a member.
This volume presents a state-of-the art research in biochemistry, molecular biology and medical application. A glossary of specialized terms is appended. Each chapter is contributed by an expert or group of experts dedicated to increase our understanding of Dunaliella. All the chapters were reviewed internally by their colleagues, editors and external reviewers; this was followed by a final revision. The book provides a balanced multi-disciplinary communication and contributes to our understanding of this unique alga. It is addressed to graduate students and scientists as a summary of current thoughts on Dunaliella.
Scheduled for its television premier in September and October of this year, the exciting series Race to Mars will be presented on the Discovery Channel in the United States and Canada. This beautiful book—the program’s companion volume—describes the dramatic chain of events that will ultimately send human beings to Mars. The story begins in ancient times when the red planet was associated with war and violence, then leads us to the American astronomer Percival Lowell. He trained his telescope on our neighboring red planet and detected surface marks that he and other observers believed were canals. Both the book and the TV account proceed to the present day, describing NASA’s series of unmanned landings, then continuing into the future, dramatizing events in the course of the projected Martian mission. The TV series will be shown in two main sections: Race to Mars summarizes the science-based fictional docudrama, a four-hour miniseries to be pres/ented on two separate evenings Mars Rising summarizes the TV documentary, to be presented as six one-hour shows This book’s magnificent illustrations include many of the high-quality photos taken by satellites and recent surface probes of Mars. Its additional illustrations include state-of-the-art visuals created especially for the TV series by author Dana Berry. Lively, readable, and scientifically accurate, Race to Mars chronicles an ongoing challenge which, if successful, will climax with one of the twenty-first century’s greatest achievements. (sidebar material) Questions Facing the Planners of the Race to Mars Will Mars astronauts be the test pilots of legend or a new breed of multi-skilled engineers? Can humans endure the extreme psychological demands of a more than two-years-long Mars mission? What unexpected mental demands will be made on the first explorers of Mars? In light of the importance of long-term team compatibility, is a mixed-gender crew the best way to go?
Explores the utility and potential of extremophiles in sustainability and biotechnology Many extremophilic bio-products are already used as life-saving drugs. Until recently, however, the difficulty of working with these microbes has discouraged efforts to develop extremophilic microbes as potential drug reservoirs of the future. Recent technological advances have opened the door to exploring these organisms anew as sources of products that might prove useful in clinical and environmental biotechnology and drug development. Extremophiles features outstanding articles by expert scientists who shed light on broad-ranging areas of progress in the development of smart therapeutics for multiple disease types and products for industrial use. It bridges technological gaps, focusing on critical aspects of extremolytes and the mechanisms regulating their biosynthesis that are relevant to human health and bioenergy, including value-added products of commercial significance as well as other potentially viable products. This groundbreaking guide: Introduces the variety of extremophiles and their extremolytes including extremozymes Provides an overview of the methodologies used to acquire extremophiles Reviews the literature on the diversity of extremophiles Offers tools and criteria for data interpretation of various extremolytes/extremozymes Discusses experimental design problems associated with extremophiles and their therapeutic implications Explores the challenges and possibilities of developing extremolytes for commercial purposes Explains the FDA's regulations on certain microbial bio-products that will be of interest to potential industrialists Extremophiles is an immensely useful resource for graduate students and researchers in biotechnology, clinical biotechnology, microbiology, and applied microbiology.
The available literature on freshwater fungi is limited. Over the subsequent years a considerable volume of scientific papers have appeared scattered throughout numerous journals. There is therefore no recent synthesis of the subject and this is the objective of the proposed book. Freshwater habitats are rich in fungi with some 3,000 described species, most of papers focussing on their identification, substrata they grow on and world distribution. However, these fungi play an important role in the freshwater ecosystem, and are primarily involved in the breakdown of leaf litter contributing food for detritus feeders. Our book will bring together a wide range of acclaimed mycologists to review recent developments on the biology and ecology of freshwater fungi, particularly their molecular phylogeny, biodiversity, causative diseases of freshwater amphibians, fishes and invertebrate animals, decomposition of leaf litter, stream pollution and their potential role in bioremediation.
This volume represents the first which interfaces with astronomy as the fulcrum of the sciences. It gives full expression to the human passion for the skies. Advancing human civilization has unfolded and matured this passion into the comprehensive science of astronomy. Advancing science’s quest for the first principles of existence meets the ontopoietic generative logos of life, the focal point of the New Enlightenment. It presents numerous perspectives illustrating how the interplay between human beings and the celestial realm has informed civilizational trends. Scholars and philosophers debate in physics and biology, the findings of which are opening a more inclusive, wider picture of the universe. The different models of the universal order and of life here presented, all aiming at the first principles of existence—accord with the phenomenology/ontopoiesis of life within the logos-prompted primogenital stream of becoming and action, which points to a future of progressing culture.
Project Report from the year 2018 in the subject Biology - Micro- and Molecular Biology, grade: 0, , language: English, abstract: Cellulose is one the most abundant carbon sources present on the earth. In the book, the author reported on production optimization and characterization of cellulolytic enzymes by thermophilic bacteria. Various adaptation strategies adapted by thermophilic bacteria are also discussed along with. The thermophilic bacterial strain produced cellulase in the CMC broth, pH 7 containing 0.5% peptone, 0.5% malt extract, 0.2% ammonium sulphate, 0.2% ammonium nitrate and 0.2% NaCl at 50 ̊C. Interestingly, the bacteria could not grow at 37 ̊C, confirming its thermophilic nature. Further, the cellulase was characterized after getting partially purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation method. The partially purified cellulase may be employed to hydrolyze agricultural wastes to produce bioethanol, i.e. biofuels. Thus, the present research may help solve issues of crisis of renewable energy as well as environmental pollution.
Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Pages: 108. Chapters: Acidophiles, Alkaliphiles, Archaea, Barophiles, Capnophiles, Cryophiles, Cryozoa, Halophiles, Lithophiles, Metallotolerants, Oligotrophs, Osmophiles, Polyextremophiles, Radiodurants, Sulphophiles, Thermophiles, Thermozoa, Xerophiles, Arthrobacter, Mycorrhiza, Grylloblattidae, Endolith, Lichen, Painted turtle, Abiogenic petroleum origin, Pseudomonas, GFAJ-1, Acidophiles in acid mine drainage, Antarctic microorganisms, Deinococcus radiodurans, Tardigrade, Crenarchaeota, Capture of painted turtles, Conservation of painted turtles, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Halobacterium, Wood Frog, Blood Falls, Halobacterium salinarum, Halobacteria, Root nodule, Berkeley Pit, Thermus aquaticus, Spring Peeper, Western Chorus Frog, Methanogen, Isohypsibius, Archaeal Richmond Mine Acidophilic Nanoorganisms, Gray tree frog, Radioresistance, Haloquadratum, Archaeocin, Pelagibacter ubique, Alvinella pompejana, Hyla chrysoscelis, Cupriavidus metallidurans, Chloroflexus aurantiacus, Thermoacidophile, Acidobacteria, Spirochaeta americana, Pabulo Henrique Rampelotto, Hyperthermophile, Mycoplasma mycoides, Sphingomonas, Desulforudis audaxviator, Diphascon, Deinococcus-Thermus, Archaeoglobaceae, Psychrophile, Thermococcus gammatolerans, Halomonas, Siberian salamander, Methanopyrus, Ferroplasma, Haloarchaea, Thermostability, Thermus thermophilus, Hypolith, Hyphomonas, Aeropyrum pernix, Acholeplasma, Strain 121, Thermomesochra, Thermotogae, Ramazzottius, Piezophile, Doryphoribius, Snottite, Halomonas salaria, Paralvinella sulfincola, Debaryomyces, Chloracidobacterium, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Itaquascon, Pseudobiotus, Eohypsibiidae, Extreme environment, Acidithiobacillales, Echiniscus testudo, Microhypsibiidae, Platicrista, Necopinatidae, Mixibius, Parachaela, Extremozyme, Parascon, Astatumen, Ramajendas, Halobiotus, Hebesuncus, Thulinius, ..
This latest volume in the Methods in Microbiology series provides an overview of the methods used for the isolation, cultivation and handling of a wide variety of extremophiles, both at the stage of their isolation from natural samples and in pure culture. It contains protocols specific for work with extremophiles, as well as adaptations of "standard” microbiology protocols modified to enable the handling of extremophiles. Emphasis will be on detailed time-tested protocols that are specific for work with extremophiles and adaptations of "standard” microbiology protocols that have to be modified to be suitable for handling extremophiles. * Guides newcomers in the field of extremophile microbiology in the techniques used * Provides an overview of all areas of extremophile research * Many protocols could be adapted for use with a wide range of organisms
A detailed overview of the current state of knowledge about this special group of organisms. - Serves as an essential volume for a variety of scientists, including microbiologists, biochemists, physiologists, biotechnology specialists, ecologists, and physical scientists such as chemists and astronomers.
The world of halophiles is quite diverse and their representatives in three domains of life i.e. archaea, bacteria and eukarya. They are found all over the small subunit rRNA based tree of life and these micro-organisms are adapted to salt concentration up to saturation hence able to grow at >300g/l Nacl concentration. Their metabolic diversity is high as well encompassing oxygenic and anoxygenic phototrophs, aerobic heterotrophs, denitrifiers, sulphate reducers, fermenters and methanogens. The proteins of halophiles are magnificently engineered to function in a milieu containing 2-5M salt that encodes genes represent a valuable repository and resource for reconstruction and visualizing processes of habitat selection and adaptive evolution. Search for new enzymes endowed with novel activities and enhanced stability continues to be desirable purpose for important commercial production of biotechnological significance. These poly extremophiles proved excellent source of enzymes and metabolites possessing inherent ability to function in extreme conditions of high salt, alkaline pH and facilitating catalysis for industrial application in food processing, industrial bioconversion, bioremediation etc. In fact, it has just begun to realize the great potential and true extent of diversity and suitable applications if explored them judiciously. This book highlights current applications and research on halophiles to provide a timely overview. Chapters are written by expert authors from around the world and include topics of varied importance which include their role to play in enzyme production, restoration of soil fertility and plant growth , antimicrobial and biocatalytic potential, biomolecules in nanotechnology and aspects of quorum sensing. The book is divided into three sections, dealing with biodiversity, biotechnology and sustainable exploitation of halophiles. This major new work represents a valuable source of information to all those scientists interested in microorganisms in general and extremophiles in particular with respect to their innovative products and applications.
With a crew of seven, the Challenger submerges three miles below the waves for a one-year mission to study the hidden world of the deep black sea. One of the team members, Ted Bell, is a former NASA scientist with his own agenda. He is much more interested in learning about the Deinococcus radiodurans bacteria that keeps sea animals alive in seven-hundred-degree, superheated water that is full of heavy metals and other toxins that flows from the “black smokers”. Ted’s ultimate goal is a mission to Mars, and if it means sacrificing the deep sea crew to advance that mission, then so be it. How is it that sea animals can live and reproduce in water that should boil them? Superheated water that is full of toxins and heavy metals, and contains almost no oxygen should be void of life on planet Earth—and yet it is teeming with it. The answer to the puzzle lies in the bacteria, and Ted knows it. Convinced that the same symbiotic relationship between the sea life and bacteria can be reproduced in humans, and then used to help humans travel to Mars one day, Ted intentionally infects a few members the crew. Just as the bacterium forces a metamorphosis in the tubeworms and other animals as the bacterium take over their host, Ted’s infected crewmates also begin their rapid transformation. And while Ted is initially thrilled with his experiments, he quickly realizes that he has lost control. As his remaining crewmates realize that they have a traitor in their midst, the fight for survival begins three miles under the waves. With two crew members transformed into “something else” and loose in the ship, the remaining crew must find a way to kill the deadly creatures that used to be their friends.