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Origin and development. The onion as a crop plant. Adaptation to climate and soil. Types and varieties for many uses. Growing early, intermediate and late crops. Soils and their management. Planting and care of the crop. The specialized industry of union seed and set production. Growing green onions for bunching. The most troublesome diseases and insects affecting the onion. Harvesting and storing the crop. Costs and returns in producing onions. The onion as food.
This fully revised, expanded and updated edition of the successful text, Onions and Other Vegetable Alliums, relates the production and utilization of these familiar and important vegetable crops to the many aspects of plant science underpinning their production and storage technologies. Chapters cover species and crop types, plant structure, genetics and breeding, physiology of growth and development as well as pests and diseases, production agronomy, storage after harvest and the biochemistry of flavour, storage carbohydrates and colour and how this relates to nutritional and health benefits. From this wide perspective it is possible to see many examples where underlying scientific knowledge illuminates, explains and can improve agronomic practice. The reader will get an insight into how molecular methods are revolutionizing the study of taxonomy, genetics, pathology and physiology and how these methods are being applied in the breeding of improved crops.
Revised and expanded throughout, this latest edition of the bestselling Seeds Handbook: Biology, Production, Processing, and Storage includes valuable information on all areas of seed biology, production, and processing. The author, one of the most respected and prolific scientists in the field, identifies current developments in seed testing and certification, storage, transportation, and distribution. Tracking the evolution and advancement of seed industries and technologies, he fully covers the development and supply of high-quality seeds for every key agronomic and horticulture crop. Contains methods to enhance the genetic and physiological characteristics of more than 80 major and minor crops With an abundance of current research and additional figures and illustrations, this edition of the Seeds Handbook offers chapters on modern biotechnological issues such as the production of synthetic seeds, loss-reduction biotechnologies, and new strategies in the seed production industry. It provides in-depth information on burgeoning areas of seed science including tissue culture and cellular totipotency, induction and regeneration protocols, development and maturation, hormone requirements, drying and storage of somatic embryos, protective encapsulation, and crop applications. With an eye to the future, it looks at challenges in the provision and enhancement of seeds for crop plants, practical methods of seed production and micropropagation, genetically modified seeds, and world food security.
Most branches of science have what might be termed a 'core area' which is both related to and helps to integrate peripheral topics to form the overall subject area. Without this central link, the subject is simply a collection of disparate, albeit gener ally related topics. What genetics is to plant breeding, epidemiology is to the subject of plant pathology and, no matter what individual topic is considered, it is always possible to recognize the interaction with and relationship to epidemiological factors. Broadly speaking, until the 1950s, plant pathology was considered as the applied side of mycology and, indeed, the British Society of Plant Pathology was spawned from its mentor, the British Mycological Society, with considerable help from The Association of Applied Biology. However, with the exploding world popu lation and the growing demand for food, plant pathologists became increasingly aware of the need for a more considered, measured, precise and even holistic approach to their subject and, particularly, to plant disease management. Looking back over 40 years of teaching and research in plant pathology, it was very clear that the 'core' of the subject was epidemiology and that this 'new' study was developing a very distinct identity which was rapidly being recognized in its own right. The 'shotgun' approach to plant disease 'control' was quickly perceived to be too inexact and almost every aspect of the subject was being reviewed, refined and advanced.
This is the first scholarly reference work to cover all the major scientific themes and facets of the subject of seeds. It outlines the latest fundamental biological knowledge about seeds, together with the principles of agricultural seed processing, storage and sowing, the food and industrial uses of seeds, and the roles of seeds in history, economies and cultures. With contributions from 110 expert authors worldwide, the editors have created 560 authoritative articles, illustrated with plentiful tables, figures, black-and-white and color photographs, suggested further reading matter and 670 supplementary definitions. The contents are alphabetically arranged and cross-referenced to connect related entries.
Plant breeders continue to make significant advances in developing high yield ing, adaptable, disease-free crops. These advances, however, are not realized until an efficient seed production system is in place that rapidly increases geneti cally superior crops and makes them available to the consumer in large quantities at a reasonable cost. Successful seed production requires seed to be genetically pure, free of admixtures, and able to establish rapidly a uniform stand. Seed production is a complex process. Rigorous production criteria are followed by both seed producer and seed companies to ensure that high-quality seed is produced and marketed. These criteria become even more stringent in hybrid seed production. This volume identifies the factors most critical in a successful seed production operation. The fundamental considerations common to all seed crops are established in Part I, Principles of Seed Production. From this founda tion, the practices of seed production are provided in detail in Part II, Seed Production of Specific Crops.
The Alliums are some of the most ancient cultivated crops and include onions, garlic, leeks and other related plants. This book provides an up-to-date review of Allium science for postgraduates and researchers. It contains commissioned chapters on topics that have shown major advances particularly in the last ten years such as molecular biology, floriculture and biofertilizers.
The book is the result of intensive work of 43 authors, all of them leading scientists in the Botrytis sciences. Each chapter describes a particular aspect of fungal biology and its impact on disease processes and host response. New technologies have arisen that when applied to long-standing problems or to test new hypotheses have been most rewarding and many of these are covered in this book. The chapters are cross linked so that readers can follow associated material.
Seed production and marketing; Improving varieties by modern methods of breeding; The work of crop-improvement associations and cooperative seed distributing agencies; Special cultural preactices and equipment necessary in growing good seed; Growing and marketing seed corn; Producing small grains for seed; Producing seed of the clovers; Producing alfalfa seed; Kentucky bluegrass-seed production and marketing; The production of seed of timothy, redtop and other grasses; Cotton seed production; Growing and marketing seed potatoes; Producing seed of field beans, soybeans, cowpeas and vetch; Growing seed of cucumbers, melons, pumpkins and squashes; Growing seed of the crucifers (Cabbage, Cauliflower, Kohlrabi, Brussels sprouts, kale, Collards, Turnip, Rutabaga, Radish, chinese cabbage, cress, horse radish and sea kale; Growing seed of solanaceous vegetables tomato, pepper, egg pant, husk tomato or ground cherry, wonderberry, tobacco; Growing seed of garden and canning beans and peas; Producing seeds of garden beet and sugar beets, swiss chard and spinach; Growing seed of carrots, parsnip, celery; parsley and other umbelliferous plants; Growing seed and sets of onion, leek, garlic, shallot, ciboul or welch onion, chives; Growing seed of lettuce, endive, chicory, salsify, artichoke; Growing seed of asparagus, okra, rhubarb; Where the nation's seed is produced.
During the past twentieth century, plant pathology has witnessed a dramatic advancement in management of plant diseases through in-depth investigations of host parasite interactions, integration of new concepts, principles and approaches. Our effort in brining out this book is to compile the achievements of modern times with regards to disease management of fruits which otherwise is widely dispersed in various scientific journals, books and government reports and to develop future strategies for the millennium. The chapters on individual crops are contributed by leading plant pathologists having authority in the respective field at international level. Each chapter includes the diseases of economic importance describing their history, distribution, symptoms, epidemiology, and integrated management approaches being adopted worldwide. Each chapter is vividly illustrated to make it more understandable to students, research and extension workers, planners, administrators and other end users citing pertinent references.
Onions in tropical regions: structure of the bulletin; a selective review of the litlerature: onions as a world crop; the onions grown in the tropics; the onions and the environment; agronomy of onions in the tropics; harvesting, drying, low-temperature storage; high-temperature storage, store design, treatments to prevent spouting in store, seed production. Information.
The Organic Seed Grower is a comprehensive manual for the serious vegetable grower who is interested in growing high-quality seeds using organic farming practices. It is written for both serious home seed savers and diversified small-scale farmers who want to learn the necessary steps involved in successfully producing a commercial seed crop organically. Detailed profiles for each of the major vegetables provide users with practical, in-depth knowledge about growing, harvesting, and processing seed for a wide range of common and specialty vegetable crops, from Asian greens to zucchini. In addition, readers will find extensive and critical information on topics including: The reproductive biology of crop plants Annual vs. biennial seed crops Isolation distances needed to ensure varietal purity Maintaining adequate population size for genetic integrity Seed crop climates Seed-borne diseases Seed-cleaning basics Seed storage for farmers and more . . . This book can serve as a bridge to lead skilled gardeners, who are already saving their own seed, into the idea of growing seed commercially. And for diversified vegetable farmers who are growing a seed crop for sale for the first time, it will provide details on many of the tricks of the trade that are used by professional seed growers. This manual will help the budding seed farmer to become more knowledgeable, efficient, and effective in producing a commercially viable seed crop. With the strong demand for certified organic produce, many regional seed companies are increasingly seeking out dedicated seed growers to ensure a reliable source of organically grown seeds for their farmer and gardener customers. This trend represents a great business opportunity for small-scale commercial growers who wish to raise and sell vegetable seeds as a profitable part of their diversified small-farm operation. Written by well-known plant breeder and organic seed expert John Navazio, The Organic Seed Grower is the most up-to-date and useful guide to best practices in this exciting and important field.
Onion (Allium cepa L.) and garlic (Allium sativum L.) are the most important Allium species cultivated worldwide and are used as vegetable and spice in our daily diet. These crops are widely cultivated for domestic consumption as well as for export purposes. They are attacked by many insect pests and diseases, which vary with region, season, and variety. This lowers the quality and yield, thereby increasing the cost of production and reduces export potential. Integrated Pest Management: strategies for onion and garlic discusses methods and tools used to minimize the incidence and severity caused by diseases and insect pests. It also focuses on the symptoms of diseases caused by various pathogens.