This book provides an insightful introduction to the most important field of military innovation for the 21st century—robotic and drone weaponry. * A chronology of important events in robotic technology * A detailed bibliography on the latest sources related to this innovative technology
Philosophers have wrestled over the morality and ethics of war for nearly as long as human beings have been waging it. The death and destruction that unmanned warfare entails magnifies the moral and ethical challenges we face in conventional warfare and everyday society. Intrinsically linked are questions and perennial problems concerning what justifies the initial resort to war, who may be legitimately targeted in warfare, who should be permitted to serve the military, the collateral effects of military weaponry and the methods of determining and dealing with violations of the laws of war. This book provides a comprehensive and unifying analysis of the moral, political and social questions concerning the rise of drone warfare.
Soldiers regularly put themselves in harmÕs way to promote peace and protect freedom. This means they have great appreciation for their robotic stand-insÑ PackBots. The remote-controlled robots especially save the day when they find hidden bombs! This book puts kids on a reading mission to discover how robots serve the military.
Packed with exciting facts and important aspects on military robots, this title also provides historical context, compelling photos, primary source quotations, and critical thinking activities. The title also includes a glossary, web links, and additional resources. Core Library is an imprint of Abdo Publishing Company.
In the early years of robotics and automated vehicles, the fight was against nature and not against a manifestly intelligent opponent. In military environments, however, where prediction and anticipation are complicated by the existence of an intelligent adversary, it is essential to retain human operators in the control loop. Future combat systems will require operators to control and monitor aerial and ground robotic systems and to act as part of larger teams coordinating diverse robotic systems over multiple echelons. The National Research Council organized a workshop to identify the most important human-related research and design issues from both the engineering and human factors perspectives, and develop a list of fruitful research directions. Interfaces for Ground and Air Military Robots summarizes the presentations and discussions from this workshop.
Explore the tension between semi-autonomous military robots and our need to oversee their safety and control. In looking at military robots such as the Predator unmanned aerial system and the Phalanx weapons system, you'll learn about the unique trade-offs involved in the speed and accuracy of action, and the ability to distinguish friend from foe.
Military robots and other, potentially autonomous robotic systems such as unmanned combat air vehicles (UCAVs) and unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) could soon be introduced to the battlefield. Look further into the future and we may see autonomous micro- and nanorobots armed and deployed in swarms of thousands or even millions. This growing automation of warfare may come to represent a major discontinuity in the history of warfare: humans will first be removed from the battlefield and may one day even be largely excluded from the decision cycle in future high-tech and high-speed robotic warfare. Although the current technological issues will no doubt be overcome, the greatest obstacles to automated weapons on the battlefield are likely to be legal and ethical concerns. Armin Krishnan explores the technological, legal and ethical issues connected to combat robotics, examining both the opportunities and limitations of autonomous weapons. He also proposes solutions to the future regulation of military robotics through international law.
This SpringerBrief reveals the latest techniques in computer vision and machine learning on robots that are designed as accurate and efficient military snipers. Militaries around the world are investigating this technology to simplify the time, cost and safety measures necessary for training human snipers. These robots are developed by combining crucial aspects of computer science research areas including image processing, robotic kinematics and learning algorithms. The authors explain how a new humanoid robot, the iCub, uses high-speed cameras and computer vision algorithms to track the object that has been classified as a target. The robot adjusts its arm and the gun muzzle for maximum accuracy, due to a neural model that includes the parameters of its joint angles, the velocity of the bullet and the approximate distance of the target. A thorough literature review provides helpful context for the experiments. Of practical interest to military forces around the world, this brief is designed for professionals and researchers working in military robotics. It will also be useful for advanced level computer science students focused on computer vision, AI and machine learning issues.
Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Pages: 33. Chapters: Phalanx CIWS, Powered exoskeleton, Dassault nEUROn, Goalkeeper CIWS, TAI Anka, Crusher, Sentry gun, Battlefield Extraction-Assist Robot, Foster-Miller TALON, Unmanned ground vehicle, 30mm DS30M Mark 2 Automated Small Calibre Gun, Goliath tracked mine, Counter Rocket, Artillery, and Mortar, Dassault LOGIDUC, List of military robots in fictional media, Dassault-Sagem SlowFast, PackBot, Talisman UUV, BigDog, XM1219 Armed Robotic Vehicle, DRDO Daksh, Dragon Runner, Energetically Autonomous Tactical Robot, Black Knight, XM1216 Small Unmanned Ground Vehicle, Remotec ANDROS, IRobot Seaglider, IRobot Warrior, IRobot Ranger, MARCbot, Samsung SGR-A1, Wheelbarrow, Legged Squad Support System, IRobot Transphibian, MarkV-A1, Modular Advanced Armed Robotic System, IRobot Negotiator, SYRANO, IRobot R-Gator, Guardium, MATILDA, Armored Combat Engineer Robot, PROWLER, ST Aero MAV-1, Tactical Autonomous Combatant. Excerpt: The Phalanx CIWS is an anti-ship missile defense system. It is a close-in weapon system (CIWS) and was designed and manufactured by the General Dynamics Corporation, Pomona Division (now a part of Raytheon). Consisting of a radar-guided 20mm Gatling gun mounted on a swivelling base, the Phalanx is used by the United States Navy on every class of surface combat ship, by the United States Coast Guard aboard its Hamilton-class and Legend class cutters and the navies of 23 allied nations. A land based variant known as C-RAM has recently been deployed in a short range missile defense role, to counter incoming rockets and artillery fire. Because of their distinctive barrel-shaped radome and their automated nature of operation, Phalanx CIWS units are sometimes nicknamed "R2-D2" after the famous droid from Star Wars, and in the Royal Navy as Daleks, after the aliens from Doctor Who. Developed as the last line of automated w...
Military robots are already being used in conflicts around the globe and are affecting both the decision to go to war and the means by which wars are conducted. This book covers the history of military robotics, analyzes their current employment, and examines the ramifications of their future utilization. • Clearly identifies the links between the technological developments of the most recent innovations and the ethical and legal challenges of the future • Presents accurate, up-to-date information that is grounded in scholarly research regarding an ever-changing field • Clarifies the capabilities aspect of military robotics and offers detailed analysis on why limits need to be placed on their development • Includes tables, charts, and photographs to illustrate the main points of the text
In order to study autonomous behaviors in small military robots, researchers at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) renovated an existing but outdated ATRV research robot. Commercial sensors with capabilities resembling those anticipated from the military tech base were selected and integrated, and the computing capability was substantially enhanced by judiciously selecting commercial components. Support electronics were upgraded or replaced as necessary. Safety elements common in larger robotic vehicles were integrated into the small ATRV chassis. Systems software was selected to provide a stable foundation for the advanced functions envisioned. Player, a middleware widely used by academic robot researchers, was incorporated as a springboard to the agent-based behaviors believed necessary for the next phase of development in robotics. A distributed development environment was implemented to enable parallel software efforts. Issues in software architecture were identified, and architectures from the literature were investigated in search of a foundation for future work. Without major investment, the antiquated research robot has become a key element in ARL's quest to develop technologies for a highly capable robot to team with soldiers on tomorrow's urban battlefield.
The first drones only appeared in the 1960s, but now they are flown by every branch of the military. Learn how drone pilots can locate and destroy targets on the other side of the world, and discover how the remarkable rise of military robots will change warfare for ever.
This book explores how the design, construction, and use of robotics technology may affect today’s legal systems and, more particularly, matters of responsibility and agency in criminal law, contractual obligations, and torts. By distinguishing between the behaviour of robots as tools of human interaction, and robots as proper agents in the legal arena, jurists will have to address a new generation of “hard cases.” General disagreement may concern immunity in criminal law (e.g., the employment of robot soldiers in battle), personal accountability for certain robots in contracts (e.g., robo-traders), much as clauses of strict liability and negligence-based responsibility in extra-contractual obligations (e.g., service robots in tort law). Since robots are here to stay, the aim of the law should be to wisely govern our mutual relationships.
The robot population is rising on Earth and other planets. (Mars is inhabited entirely by robots.) As robots slip into more domains of human life--from the operating room to the bedroom--they take on our morally important tasks and decisions, as well as create new risks from psychological to physical. This makes it all the more urgent to study their ethical, legal, and policy impacts. To help the robotics industry and broader society, we need to not only press ahead on a wide range of issues, but also identify new ones emerging as quickly as the field is evolving. For instance, where military robots had received much attention in the past (and are still controversial today), this volume looks toward autonomous cars here as an important case study that cuts across diverse issues, from liability to psychology to trust and more. And because robotics feeds into and is fed by AI, the Internet of Things, and other cognate fields, robot ethics must also reach into those domains, too. Expanding these discussions also means listening to new voices; robot ethics is no longer the concern of a handful of scholars. Experts from different academic disciplines and geographical areas are now playing vital roles in shaping ethical, legal, and policy discussions worldwide. So, for a more complete study, the editors of this volume look beyond the usual suspects for the latest thinking. Many of the views as represented in this cutting-edge volume are provocative--but also what we need to push forward in unfamiliar territory.
Prominent experts from science and the humanities explore issues in robot ethics that range from sex to war. Robots today serve in many roles, from entertainer to educator to executioner. As robotics technology advances, ethical concerns become more pressing: Should robots be programmed to follow a code of ethics, if this is even possible? Are there risks in forming emotional bonds with robots? How might society--and ethics--change with robotics? This volume is the first book to bring together prominent scholars and experts from both science and the humanities to explore these and other questions in this emerging field. Starting with an overview of the issues and relevant ethical theories, the topics flow naturally from the possibility of programming robot ethics to the ethical use of military robots in war to legal and policy questions, including liability and privacy concerns. The contributors then turn to human-robot emotional relationships, examining the ethical implications of robots as sexual partners, caregivers, and servants. Finally, they explore the possibility that robots, whether biological-computational hybrids or pure machines, should be given rights or moral consideration. Ethics is often slow to catch up with technological developments. This authoritative and accessible volume fills a gap in both scholarly literature and policy discussion, offering an impressive collection of expert analyses of the most crucial topics in this increasingly important field.
This book provides a holistic view of the key technologies that are expected to revolutionise military affairs and change the nature of warfare tactics and the existing concept of the 'battlefield' itself in the near future. It addresses five key technologies-near-space technology, robotics, directed energy weapons, nanotechnology and biotechnology-and explains why they are being considered for military applicability worldwide. It highlights how they would contribute to the future warfare tactics and defence mechanisms of various countries. In addition, it also discusses the possible military utilities of two other technologies-ambient intelligence and cognitive technology. Written in an easy-to-understand style, the book presents a social-scientific approach. It describes the nuances of technological development in a purely scientific manner and provides a social perspective to their relevance for future warfare and for issues such as disarmament and arms control, as well as their impact on the environment. The book begins with a focus on the researches going on in several developed countries in the last decade-some of them for nearly two decades now-and then narrows its focus on India and a few developing countries. It concludes with a few India-specific recommendations, which would help policy-makers and military leadership to methodically incorporate the recent technological developments in the future warfare and defence tactics of the country. Strategic Technologies for the Military: Breaking New Frontiers, as can be gauged from the title, will be immensely useful for students and academics working in the fields of defence and strategic studies, politics and international relations.