This book is designed in part as a handbook to assist students and researchers in the choice and use of methods for investigating children's grammar. The study of child language and, in particular, child syntax is a growing area of linguistic research, yet methodological issues often take a back seat to the findings and conclusions of specific studies in the field. This book is designed in part as a handbook to assist students and researchers in the choice and use of methods for investigating children's grammar. For example, a method (or combination of methods) can be chosen based on what is measured and who the target subject is. In addition to the selection of methods, there are also pointers for designing and conducting experimental studies and for evaluating research. Methods for Assessing Children's Syntax combines the best features of approaches developed in experimental psychology and linguistics that ground the study of language within the study of human cognition. The first three parts focus on specific methods, divided according to the type of data collected: production, comprehension, and judgment. Chapters in the fourth part take up general methodological considerations that arise regardless of which method is used. All of the methods described can be modified to meet the requirements of a specific study. Contributors Helen Smith Cairns, Katherine Demuth, Jill de Villiers, Suzanne Flynn, Claire Foley, LouAnn Gerken, Roberta Michnick Golinkoff, Helen Goodluck, Peter Gordon, Kathy Hirsh-Pasek, Jennifer Ryan Hsu, Louis Michael Hsu, Celia Jakubowicz, Laurence B. Leonard, Barbara Lust, Dana McDaniel, Cecile McKee, Thomas Roeper, Michele E. Shady, Karin Stromswold, Rosalind Thornton Language, Speech, and Communication series
This book constitutes a clear, comprehensive, up-to-date introduction to the basic principles of psychological and educational assessment that underlie effective clinical decisions about childhood language disorders. Rebecca McCauley describes specific commonly used tools, as well as general approaches ranging from traditional standardized norm-referenced testing to more recent ones, such as dynamic and qualitative assessment. Highlighting special considerations in testing and expected patterns of performance, she reviews the challenges presented by children with a variety of problems--specific language impairment, hearing loss, mental retardation, and autism spectrum disorders. Three extended case examples illustrate her discussion of each of these target groups. Her overarching theme is the crucial role of well-formed questions as fundamental guides to decision making, independent of approach. Each chapter features lists of key concepts and terms, study questions, and recommended readings. Tables throughout offer succinct summaries and aids to memory. Students, their instructors, and speech-language pathologists continuing their professional education will all welcome this invaluable new resource. Distinctive features include: A comprehensive consideration of both psychometric and descriptive approaches to the characterization of children's language A detailed discussion of background issues important in the language assessment of the major groups of children with language impairment Timely information on assessment of change--a topic frequently not covered in other texts Extensive guidance on how to evaluate individual norm-referenced measures for adoption An extensive appendix listing about 50 measures used to assess language in children A test review guide that can be reproduced for use by readers.
This book presents a comprehensive set of tools for assessing the linguistic abilities of bilingual children. It aims to disentangle effects of bilingualism from those of Specific Language Impairment (SLI), making use of both models of bilingualism and models of language impairment.
This is a comprehensive and accessible guide to the methods researchers use to study child language, written by experienced scholars in the study of language development. Presents a comprehensive survey of laboratory and naturalistic techniques used in the study of different domains of language, age ranges, and populations, and explains the questions addressed by each technique Presents new research methods, such as the use of functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) to study the activity of the brain Expands on more traditional research methods such as collection, transcription, and coding of speech samples that have been transformed by new hardware and software
The metalinguistic dimension refers to the way in which learners bring to bear knowledge about language into their learning of a second language, the "L2". This book brings together new research on the metalinguistic dimension, given its increasing importance in the study of L2 acquisition. In applied linguistics it is widely accepted that L2 learners develop and use knowledge about language when engaging with the challenging task of acquiring a new language; this applies to both children and adults. It is definitions of the metalinguistic dimension that vary, and findings regarding its role in L2 learning are not necessarily homogenous or compatible. The scope exists for further, empirical, detailed research. This book explores the nature, development and role of the metalinguistic dimension and will be essential reading for all SLA scholars and those working in language and education.
Research Methods in Sign Language Studies is a landmark work on sign language research, which spans the fields of linguistics, experimental and developmental psychology, brain research, and language assessment. Examines a broad range of topics, including ethical and political issues, key methodologies, and the collection of linguistic, cognitive, neuroscientific, and neuropsychological data Provides tips and recommendations to improve research quality at all levels and encourages readers to approach the field from the perspective of diversity rather than disability Incorporates research on sign languages from Europe, Asia, North and South America, and Africa Brings together top researchers on the subject from around the world, including many who are themselves deaf
Portraits of the L2 User treats second language users in their own right rather than as failed native speakers. It describes a range of psychological and linguistic approaches to diverse topics about L2 users. It thus provides an innovative overview of current second language acquisition theories, results and methods, seen from a common perspective.
This 22-chapter text explores the structure of language and the meaning of words within a given structure. The text/workbook combination gives students both the theory and practice they need to understand this complex topic. It features the personalized system of instruction (PSI) approach.
The English word infant is derived from the Latin word meaning unable to speak, reflecting the general sense that the transition from infancy into childhood is marked by the production of the child's first word. However, modern methods for measuring infant behavior and brain activity suggest that there is a great deal of language learning that goes on before first word production. The book, Language Development, by LouAnn Gerken, Ph.D. examines both classic and current studies that trace the development of human language from before birth to the early childhood years. By focusing on areas of language development in which a unified set of theoretical issues has been explored, the book presents a theoretically and empirically more coherent approach to language development than other books in this discipline. The book also considers the theoretical questions that drive language scientists to pursue these studies: What are the biological underpinnings of language? Why has it proven so difficult to build a computer that learns language? Is language learning like or unlike learning of other abilities such as math or music? How should we best characterize developmental language disorders? This book is aimed at the junior and senior undergraduates and the graduate students enrolled in Language Development across psychology, linguistics, and communication disorders. For practitioners engaged in working with language development/disorders, this is the perfect book to "stay up-to-date." Each chapter in this book includes valuable highlights of "thought questions" to help students ponder the content of the chapter. Lucid narration of contents has been significantly augmented by ample usage of tables and illustrations.
This introductory guide to language acquisition research is presented within the framework of Universal Grammar, a theory of the human faculty for language. The authors focus on two experimental techniques for assessing children's linguistic competence: the Elicited Production task, a production task, and the Truth Value Judgment task, a comprehension task. Their methodologies are designed to overcome the numerous obstacles to empirical investigation of children's language competence. They produce research results that are more reproducible and less likely to be dismissed as an artifact of improper experimental procedure. In the first section of the book, the authors examine the fundamental assumptions that guide research in this area; they present both a theory of linguistic competence and a model of language processing. In the following two sections, they discuss in detail their two experimental techniques.
The seventh edition of The Development of Language, written and contributed by leading researchers, covers language acquisition and development from infancy through adulthood. This authoritative text is ideal for courses that take a developmental approach to language acquisition across the full life span, from infancy through the aging process. The text thoroughly explores syntax, morphology, semantics, phonology, and pragmatics. It examines atypical development with attention to the most common disorders affecting language acquisition, presents strong coverage of individual differences in language acquisition and learning, describes how and why they occur, and provides contemporary references and the most recent research findings. The panel of expert authors provides students with cutting-edge research knowledge in an interesting and highly readable format. The goal is the best and most up-to-date information for the student, with guides for further exploration of topics of interest. The emphasis on change over the life span is even more important to students from all fields, since it reinforces current developments in cognitive neuroscience that indicate language, once acquired, is not static, but rather, undergoes constant neural reorganization. HIGHLIGHTS OF WHAT'S NEW IN THE SEVENTH EDITION: Updated chapter on atypical language development (Chapter 9) contains new information about cochlear implants, current research on the autism spectrum disorders, new therapeutic approaches to atypical language, with an emphasis on Specific Language Impairment, and evaluation of recent claims regarding the etiology of atypicality. Therapeutic recommendations are presented within the context of Evidence-based Practice (EBP). Includes contemporary topics, such as the neurological bases of animal and human communication, the value of programs to accelerate language in infants, such as “baby signs”, language acquisition in languages other than English, adopted foreign children's language acquisition, and genetic basis for language, that encourage topical discussions. Updated with new material on the hypothesized brain mechanisms that underlie language acquisition, the aging brain's language processing abilities, and language disorder, as well as advances in the treatment of language disorders ensuring student awareness of current discoveries. New information on using computers and the Internet to carry out directed and student-initiated research on language development, not found in most competing texts in the subject area. Expanded information on the use of the Child Language Data Exchange System, which is now Web-based, and contains both written transcripts and auditory language samples that permit first-hand student research in the topic areas. Completely updated chapters that continue to emphasize the primary concerns of researchers and practitioners working in the areas of language acquisition and disorders.