This book includes research from selected international authors and institutions that consider land use management to be an important aspect in the context of climate change and development. Our team of editors and authors hope to add a valuable contribution to the literature to address global climate change in relation to agricultural-forestry ecosystems and development in vulnerable locations. Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry book chapters include a wide variety of topics on changes in land use practices, carbon sequestration, forest degradation, as well as polices that affect land use and development. It also includes a description of the current state of land use, land-use change and forestry in South Asian countries (Chapter 1); an evaluation of biodiversity and peoples willingness to pay (Chapter 2); modelling of carbon sequestration in forests (Chapter 3); trade-off analysis in economic and environmental objectives (Chapter 4); use of radar imagery in detecting forest degradation (Chapter 5); assessment of carbon sequestration in woodlots (Chapter 6); solutions for improved survival of ruminants in arid and semi-arid environments and associated carbon sequestration (Chapter 7); policy interventions for land use changes (Chapter 8); accomplishing land use change from subsistence to commercial farming in Mozambique (Chapter 9); and an international and multi-sectoral approach for partnering to achieve positive agricultural developmental land use change (Chapter 10). Our team of editors, reviewers, and authors are honored to be part of this project; truly an example of international cooperation and articulation within the climate change community. The chapters and authors of Land Use, Land-Use and Forestry were carefully selected through a rigorous peer review process considering publication records, relevant and high quality contributions to this topic, and priming international cooperation. For this book and its contents, the intended audience includes the international climate change community including: contributors to the UNFCCC-IPCC process, policymakers, consultants, project developers, researchers and their institutions. Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry aims to be a valuable addition to multidisciplinary and international cooperation efforts (policies, cultural practices, new technologies, and adaptation measures), to development of land use policies, governmental and nongovernmental agencies worldwide and the general public. The editors of Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry believe the book is an effective tool to help the international community progress in understanding and management of land use changes in addressing climate change through international collaboration and cooperation.
Introduction; The greenhouse effect and global warming policy; The market for emission reductions; Accounting for carbon sequestration; A model of project participation; Analysis of project design; Farm heterogeneity and other issues affecting project feasibility; Conclusions.
Forest harvest for bioenergy is growing rapidly, spurred by the European Commission's declaration that bioenergy is carbon-neutral. Bioenergy advocates argue that the carbon released upon the combustion of harvested wood should eventually be reabsorbed from the atmosphere when the harvested land regrows. Recent studies, however, find that wood bioenergy can exacerbate climate change because it is less efficient than the fossil fuels it displaces, and because regrowth takes time and is uncertain. Other land use, land-use change, and forestry (LULUCF) practices can also cause significant carbon fluxes to and from the atmosphere that vary over time as the carbon sequestered in the biomass and soils on each land type changes. Understanding these complex interactions requires an explicit dynamic model that accounts for various land uses and regions, each with carbon content and flux characteristics specific to their respective vegetation, soil distributions, and climatic domains. This work extends the widely used C-ROADS climate model, originally developed with a single biosphere, to incorporate this level of detail. Built up from a diverse set of highly resolved geospatial databases for land cover, soils, climatic domains, and other relevant characteristics, the model aggregates the data into six land use types (natural forest, harvested forest, cropland, pasture, permafrost, and developed/other land) within six major regions (the US, EU, China, India, Other Developed Nations, and Other Developing Nations). It is used to analyze the impact of harvesting forests for bioenergy. Because wood bioenergy is less efficient than the fossil fuels it displaces, the first impact is an increase in atmospheric CO2 . If the land regrows as forest, this carbon debt can eventually be repaid. However, the time required to do so is long, ranging from 20 to 186 years, depending on the region supplying the wood and whether the forest is thinned or clear-cut. Converting forest to cropland after harvest increases atmospheric CO2 concentrations without payback. Results also show that afforestation programs are most effective in reducing atmospheric CO2 when implemented in regions with more tropical climates due to the higher carbon density of these forests. This fast, regionally specific, multi-land-use model enables policy makers and other stakeholders to quickly design and evaluate of a wide range of LULUCF and bioenergy policy scenarios and their climatic effects.
As atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases continue to increase, so does the potential for atmospheric warming and associated climate change. In an effort to address the threat of global climate change, 155 countries signed the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. As of the first session of the Conference of the Parties, 128 nations had ratified the Convention. Among their other commitments, Parties to the Convention must develop and periodically update national inventories of net anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions using comparable methodologies, and must develop and implement national programs to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. To further the development of emission inventories and mitigation options within the African context, 64 governmental and non-governmental scientists and policy analysts from 23 nations gathered at a workshop near Johannesburg, South Africa from 29 May to 2 June 1995. The workshop focused on forestry, land-use change, and agriculture, because these sectors not only are responsible for the majority of emissions from the continent and provide promising opportunities for emissions mitigation, but also are a vital component of African economic growth and development. This book presents the workshop's major conclusions and findings, as well as individual papers that were prepared for the workshop, each of which was peer-reviewed and accepted for publication as part of the workshop process. The papers cover four areas: (1) issues are associated with data collection and emission factor determination; (2) problems associated with applying the IPCC inventory methodologies in Africa; (3) results of national inventory assessments in Africa; and (4) possible emissions mitigation options and methods for evaluating their potential viability. As the first book dedicated solely to greenhouse gas emissions and mitigation options in Africa, this will be an invaluable resource to scientists, policymakers, and development specialists interested in global climate change and Africa.
Public concern over land management has never been greater. This book provides a broad overview of the economics of rural land-use change, drawing attention to the meaningful role economic analysis can play in resolving public concern and supporting futur
The patterns of land use that have evolved in Europe reflect the boundaries set by the natural environment and socio-economic responses to the needs of the population. Over the centuries man has been able to overcome increasingly the constraints placed on land use by the natural environment through the development of new technologies and innovations, driven by an increasing population and rising material expectations. However, activities are still ultimately constrained by natural limitations such as climatic characteristics and associated edaphic and vegetational features. A major problem for land management, in its broadest sense, can be a reluctance to foresee the consequent ecological changes. This means that mitigating strategies will not be implemented in time to prevent environmental degradation and social hardship, although in many parts of Europe, over some centuries, demands have been met in a sustainable way, by sound, prudent and temperate expectations that have dictated management regimes. The management of land in Europe has always been a complex challenge: land is the primary, though finite resource. DeciSions regarding the use of land and manipulation of ecosystem dynamics today may affect the long-term primary productivity of the resource. Decisions to change land use may be virtually irreversible; urbanization is an illustration of the influence of population density on the land resource.
International concern for the continued growth of greenhouse gas emissions, and the potentially damaging consequences of resultant global climate change, led to the signing of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change by 155 nations at the Earth Summit in June 1992. The Convention came into force on 21 March 1994, three months after receiving its 50th ratification. All Parties to the Convention are required to compile, periodically update, and publish national inventories of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and sinks using comparable methodologies. In support of this process, the US Country Studies Program (US CSP) is providing financial and technical assistance to 56 developing and transition countries for conducting national inventories. This book presents the results of preliminary national inventories prepared by countries participating in the US CSP that are ready to share their interim findings. In some cases, inventories were prepared with support from other organizations. Preliminary inventories of twenty countries in Africa, Asia, Central and Eastern Europe and the Newly Independent States, and Latin America are presented, as well as regional and global syntheses of the national results. The regional and global syntheses also discuss results of eleven other preliminary national inventories that have been published elsewhere with the assistance of other programs. Results are discussed in the context of national and regional socioeconomic characteristics, and the regional and global syntheses compare national inventory estimates to other published estimates that are based largely on international databases. Papers also discuss inventory development issues, such as data collection and emission factor determination, and problems associated with applying the IPCC inventory methodologies. The preliminary inventory results reported here represent significant progress towards meeting country commitments under the Framework Convention, and provide useful information for refining international greenhouse gas emission databases and improving inventory methodologies. As the first book to compile national greenhouse gas emission estimates prepared by national experts in developing countries and countries with economies in transition, this will be an invaluable resource to scientists, policymakers, and development specialists in national, regional and global anthropogenic sources and sinks of greenhouse gases.
The interaction between environmental change and human activities is com plex, requiring the concepts and tools of a number of disciplines for its effective analysis. Land-use and land-cover change has only recently become a topic susceptible to scientific research, as these concepts and tools have been devel oped and made available. Rooted in a broad community concemed with global change, systematic research has begun into land-use systems at different scales and interactions, and their links with global cyc1es of water, nitrogen and carbon are being explored. Partly based on research initiated by the Dutch National Research Programme on Global Air PolIution and Climate Change (NRP), this book touches upon various land-use and land-cover issues in relation to global environmental change. In addition to the biogeochemical cyc1es, land as a car rier for functions of economic activities, food and fibre production and energy production via biomass are discussed. Crucial in studying land use is human behaviour and man-environment interaction at different scales. Land-use and land-cover change is an important contrlbutor of greenhouse gasses as these activities directly interfere with the carbon, nitrogen and water cyc1es. These cyc1es are connected through numerous feedback loops. The interface of land-use and c1imate is essentially determined by the interaction of man and the environment. Man uses land primarily to produce food; a relatively small area is needed for urban development.
Carbon Inventory Methods Handbook fills the need for a handbook that provides guidelines and methods required for carbon inventory. It provides detailed step-by-step information on sampling procedures, field and laboratory measurements, application of remote sensing and GIS techniques, modeling, and calculation procedures along with sources of data for carbon inventory. The book is driven by a growing need for ‘carbon inventory’ for land use sections such as forests.
As governments and institutions work to ameliorate the effects of anthropogenic CO2 emissions on global climate, there is an increasing need to understand how land-use and land-cover change is coupled to the carbon cycle, and how land management can be used to mitigate their effects. This book brings an interdisciplinary team of fifty-eight international researchers to share their novel approaches, concepts, theories and knowledge on land use and the carbon cycle. It discusses contemporary theories and approaches combined with state-of-the-art technologies. The central theme is that land use and land management are tightly integrated with the carbon cycle and it is necessary to study these processes as a single natural-human system to improve carbon accounting and mitigate climate change. The book is an invaluable resource for advanced students, researchers, land-use planners and policy makers in natural resources, geography, forestry, agricultural science, ecology, atmospheric science and environmental economics.