Numerous incidents suggest that man-made sound injures and can kill marine mammals. This book offers an objective look at how ocean noise should be addressed given the lack of regulatory structure and the scientific uncertainty over the effects of noise on marine life. It is an essential text for policymakers, governments and NGOs, biologists, environmental activists, , oceanographers, and those in the shipping, engineering, and offshore oil and gas industries.
The meeting of Aquatic Noise 2013 will introduce participants to the most recent research data, regulatory issues and thinking about effects of man-made noise and will foster critical cross-disciplinary discussion between the participants. Emphasis will be on the cross-fertilization of ideas and findings across species and noise sources. As with its predecessor, The Effects of Noise on Aquatic Life: 3rd International Conference will encourage discussion of the impact of underwater sound, its regulation and mitigation of its effects. With over 100 contributions from leading researchers, a wide range of sources of underwater sound will be considered.
This book addresses emerging challenges for the World Ocean in the Anthropocene epoch and the effects of increasing globalisation on the seas. The issues explored in particular include climate change, sustainable fisheries, biodiversity, shipping and regional seas adjoining Europe.
This book consists of the proceedings of the International Conference on Detection and Classification of Underwater Targets which took place in Brest, France, in October 2012. This collection of academic papers represents the current state of the art of research and development in the areas of sensor technology, processing, modeling and automation for the purpose of detecting and classifying objects in the underwater environment, written by leading researchers in government, industry and academia. These articles should be of interest not only to those working on underwater target detection, but also to researchers in the related fields of remote sensing, robotic perception and medical imaging.
With advances in technology and maritime transport, human use of the ocean now extends beyond the traditional activities of navigation and fishing. Emerging activities such as bioprospecting, deep seabed mineral and hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation, offshore renewable energy developments and marine scientific probes of deep sea areas challenge the applicability of maritime law and policy in new ways. This handbook examines current regulatory and enforcement instruments and mechanisms for different sectors of maritime activity. Covering various jurisdictions, its specially commissioned chapters are authored by some of the world’s foremost authorities on maritime law, and offer unique perspectives on maritime law, policy and practice. This highly relevant collection is organised into four parts: • International Law Considerations in Maritime Regulation and Enforcement • Role of States and other International Actors in Maritime Regulation and Enforcement • Regulation and Enforcement in Different Maritime Sectors • Current Issues and Future Challenges This comprehensive reference work will be of interest to scholars and students of maritime law, practitioners and non-lawyers interested in the regulation of offshore areas, as well as policy-makers.
The number of global instruments affecting the law of marine environmental protection--both `soft' and `hard' law--grows constantly. Regional organizations have become increasingly concerned with matters affecting traditional freedoms of the seas. As a result, the law in this area has rapidly expanded, often creating competing or conflicting rules. Competing Norms in the Law of Marine Environmental Protection contains edited versions of the papers presented at a conference in the andÅland Islands, Finland, in August 1996, convened by the Department of Law of andÅbo Akademi University, Finland. It provides a detailed examination of current legal issues relating to the variety of rules and rule-makers in the field of marine environmental protection. It then goes further, relating the recent developments to international law in a wider context. The legal regime regulating ship safety and pollution prevention provides an excellent illustration of contemporary trends of international law in general and of the law of the sea and international environmental law in particular.
This work takes a hands-on approach to the origins of environmental problems, their economic consequences, and the policies that address them. The text presents environmental economic theory and methods, and then applies and reinforces them with illustrations and applications.
This is the first monograph on the idea of obligations erga omnes, an increasingly important concept in contemporary international law. Maurizio Ragazzi employs a pragmatic approach that identifies five common elements among the examples of obligations erga omnes given by the International Court. These five properties are then discussed comparatively.
International Law and Pollution provides an overview of international legal principles and institutional efforts relevant to pollution and then focuses on two particularly acute problems: nuclear pollution and acid rain.
The Second International Conference on the Effects of Noise on Aquatic Life will take place in Ireland August 15-20, 2010. The main emphasis of the conference will be on defining the current state of knowledge. However, we will also assess progress in the three years since the First conference. The Second conference will place strong emphasis on recent research results, the sharing of ideas, discussion of experimental approaches, and analysis of regulatory issues.
Abstract: International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and other bodies have been trying to set-up guidelines and regulations to reduce/limit noise levels at sea which influence marine life in particular marine mammals and certain fish types. Ships with low noise characteristics will be a must in the near future for almost all ship types. However for special ships, such as naval surface vessels, fishing vessels, submarines, etc. this has already been an issue because of their operational requirements. The propeller is one of the main sources of underwater noise generated by ships. Therefore, it is important to predict and control the underwater noise characteristics of propellers. In this respect, the main objective of this study is to calculate propeller radiated noise numerically. Propeller noise has been investigated numerically for the INSEAN E1619 submarine propeller in open water, behind a generic DARPA suboff submarine and within imposed wake cases at non-cavitating conditions due to their deeply submerged operations. Flow around the propeller is solved with a commercial CFD software using Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier–Stokes (URANS), while hydro-acoustic analysis is performed using a model based on Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings equation. This paper reports the results of the study. The paper also includes the details of the bodies and discusses further improvement of the methodology applied.