Government has been radically transformed over the past few decades. These transformations have been mirrored in, and often prefigured by, changes in the governance of security - mentalities, institutions, technologies and practices used to promote secure environments. This book traces the nature of these governmental changes by looking at security. It examines a variety of related questions, including: * What significant changes have occurred in the governance of security? * What implications do these changes have for collective life? * What new imaginings may be needed to reshape security? * What ethical factors need to be considered in formulating such new imaginings? The authors conclude bringing together descriptive, explanatory and normative considerations to access how justice can be conceived within the governance of security.
Statutes and regulations are frequently designed to affect the public in specific ways. But exactly how these laws ultimately impact the public often depends on how politicians go about securing control of the complex public agencies that implement policies, and how these organizations in turn are used to define the often-contested concept of "national security." Governing Security explores this dynamic by investigating the surprising history of two major federal agencies that touch the lives of Americans every day: the Roosevelt-era Federal Security Agency––which eventually became today's Department of Health and Human Services––and the more recently created Department of Homeland Security. By describing the legal, political, and institutional history of both organizations, Mariano-Florentino Cuéllar offers a compelling account of crucial developments affecting the basic architecture of our nation. He shows how Americans end up choosing security goals not through an elaborate technical process, but in lively and overlapping settings involving conflict over statutory programs, agency autonomy, presidential power, and priorities for domestic and international risk regulation. Ultimately, as Cuéllar shows, ongoing fights about the scope of national security reshape the very structure of government and the intricate process through which statutes and regulations are implemented, particularly during––or in anticipation of––a national crisis.
In a world that is increasingly unstable, intelligence services like the American CIA and the United Kingdom's MI6 exist to deliver security. Whether the challenge involves terrorism, cyber-security, or the renewed specter of great power conflict, intelligence agencies mitigate threats and provide decisional advantage to national leaders. But empowered intelligence services require adequate supervision and oversight, which must be about more than the narrow (if still precarious) task of ensuring the legality of covert operations and surveillance activities. Global Intelligence Oversight is a comparative investigation of how democratic countries can govern their intelligence services so that they are effective, but operate within frameworks that are acceptable to their people in an interconnected world. The book demonstrates how the institutions that oversee intelligence agencies participate in the protection of national security while safeguarding civil liberties, balancing among competing national interests, and building public trust in inherently secret activities. It does so by analyzing the role of courts and independent oversight bodies as they operate in countries with robust constitutional frameworks and powerful intelligence services. The book also illuminates a new transnational oversight dynamic that is shaping and constraining security services in new ways. It describes how global technology companies and litigation in transnational forums constitute a new form of oversight whose contours are still undefined. As rapid changes in technology bring the world closer together, these forces will complement their more traditional counterparts in ensuring that intelligence activities remain effective, legitimate, and sustainable.
With only five years left until the 2015 deadline to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, food security still is a dream rather than reality: 'a situation that exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life'. Political commitments at world summits on food security, market-based agricultural policies, science-based food safety regulation and voluntary guidelines on the right to food have not ended hunger, malnourishment or food safety crises in our world. The question arises whether food insecurity is a situation that exists in spite of these commitments and legal measures, or rather due to them? This book has three purposes. Firstly, it offers insights in how law, politics and the right to food contribute to food security in both positive and negative ways. For this purpose, different theories, concepts and methodologies from legal, political, anthropological and sociological sciences are used and developed. Secondly, the book explains that food security and food policies cannot be treated as given, at one level or in one domain only. This is done in different ways: by pointing out the emergence of new paradigms on food security, human rights and science that shape food policies; by showing how law and policies at one level affect food security at another level; and by treating food security and food policies as linked to governance regimes of agriculture, food, feed, water or property. Finally, the book offers scholarly analysis of paradigms and practices but also presents social science-based ways to indirectly contribute to food security, varying from improving justiciability to building trust, from seeking ways to address non-scientific concerns to creating room for plurality of lifestyles and norms, from unmasking dominant discourse to understanding or strengthening abilities or arrangements to cope with vulnerability.
This book explores and maps the relationship between borders, security and global governance. Theoretically, the book seeks to establish to what degree, and in what ways, traditional notions of borders, security and (global) governance are being eroded, undermined and contested in the context of a globalising world. Borders are increasingly being re-conceptualised to account for connectivity as well as divisions at the same time as focus is shifting from permanence to permeability. The ambivalence ascribed to bordering processes is at heart a security concern; borders are not only entwined with state formation but are also attempts at governing securities, identities and histories. Proceeding from a critical rendering of statist conceptualisations of borders, security and governance, the book not only emphasises the politics of borders, mobility and re-locations, but also provides a shared groundwork for interrogating the spatial conditions for bordering and border work as manifestations of a continuously deferred becoming rather than being. A principal contribution of the volume is its scrutiny of how borders are enacted and perceived in and through the everyday, and of how such production and construal can make sense as acts of resistance to various forms of governing. Such a focus reveals the necessity of investigating how governing from afar affects the possibilities and tendencies to securitise as well as desecuritise, within as well as beyond elite settings. This book will be of much interest to students of border studies, human geography, governmentality, global governance and IR/critical security studies.
The security governance of South Africa has faced immense challenges amid post-apartheid constitutional and political transformations. In many cases, policing and governmental organizations have failed to provide security and other services to the poorest inhabitants. Security Governance, Policing, and Local Capacity explores an experiment that too
This book investigates governance practiced by non-state actors. It analyses how multinational mining companies protect their sites in fragile contexts and what that tells us about political ordering 'beyond' the state. Based on extensive primary research in the Democratic Republic of Congo, South Africa, Europe and North America, the book compares companies' political role in the 19th and 21st centuries. It demonstrates that despite a number of disturbing parallels, many contemporary practices are not a reversion to the past but unique to the present. The book discloses hybrid security practices with highly ambiguous effects around the sites of contemporary companies that have committed to norms of corporate social and security responsibility. Companies invest in local communities, and offer human rights training to security forces alongside coercive techniques of fortress protection, and stability-oriented clientele practice and arrangements of indirect rule. The book traces this hybridity back to contradictory collective meaning systems that cross borders and structure the perceptions and choices of company managers, private security officers, NGO collaborators and others practitioners. The book argues that hybrid security practices are not the result of an encounter between a supposed ‘local’ with the liberal ‘global’. Instead, this hybridity is inherent in the transnational and part and parcel of liberal transnational governance. Therefore, more critical reflection of global governance in practice is required. These issues are sharply pertinent to liberal peacebuilding as well as global governance more broadly. The book will be of interest to anyone interested in business, politics and human rights; critical security studies; peacebuilding and statebuilding; African politics; and ethnographic and sociological approaches to global governance and international relations more generally.
The Growing Imperative Need for Effective Information Security Governance With monotonous regularity, headlines announce ever more spectacular failures of information security and mounting losses. The succession of corporate debacles and dramatic control failures in recent years underscores the necessity for information security to be tightly integrated into the fabric of every organization. The protection of an organization's most valuable asset information can no longer be relegated to low-level technical personnel, but must be considered an essential element of corporate governance that is critical to organizational success and survival. Written by an industry expert, Information Security Governance is the first book-length treatment of this important topic, providing readers with a step-by-step approach to developing and managing an effective information security program. Beginning with a general overview of governance, the book covers: The business case for information security Defining roles and responsibilities Developing strategic metrics Determining information security outcomes Setting security governance objectives Establishing risk management objectives Developing a cost-effective security strategy A sample strategy development The steps for implementing an effective strategy Developing meaningful security program development metrics Designing relevant information security management metrics Defining incident management and response metrics Complemented with action plans and sample policies that demonstrate to readers how to put these ideas into practice, Information Security Governance is indispensable reading for any professional who is involved in information security and assurance.
The promotion of security is no longer a state monopoly. It is dispersed and takes place through the practices of states, corporations, non-governmental actors and community-based organizations. But what do we know about the ways in which 'security' is thought about and promoted in this pluralized field of delivery? Are democratic values being advanced and protected, or threatened and compromised? Wood and Dupont bring together a team of renowned scholars to shed light on our understanding of the arrangements for contemporary security governance. Offering a 'friendly dialogue' between those who argue that democratic transformation rests in the development of strong state institutions and those who propose a more de-centered agenda, the scholars in this volume bring cutting-edge theoretical analyses to bear on empirical examples. This volume will appeal to researchers in the fields of criminology, political science, sociology and security studies.
This book examines global governance through Foucaultian notions of governmentality and security, as well as the complex intersections between the two. The volume explores how Foucault's understanding of the general economy of power in modern society allows us to consider the connection of two broad possible dynamics: the global governmentalization of security and the securitization of global governance. If Foucault's work on governmentality and security has found resonance in IR scholarship in recent years it is in large part due to his understanding of how these forms of power must necessarily take into account the management of circulation that, in seeking to maximize ‘good’ versus ‘bad’ circulatory flows, brings into play and problematizes the 'inside'/'outside' upon which domestic and international spaces have been traditionally understood. Indeed, Foucault introduces a set of conceptual tools that can inform our analyses of globalization, global governance and security in ways that have been left largely unexplored in the discipline of IR. Miguel de Larrinaga is Assistant Professor at the University of Ottawa where he has been teaching since 2002. Marc G. Doucet is an Associate Professor in the Department of Political Science at Saint Mary’s University.
The Handbook is divided into four sections which examine, in turn: the emergence, evolution, and forms of security governance, as well as the theoretical orientations that have so far dominated the literature (networks, multilateralism, regimes, and sy
This book demarcates the barriers and pathways to major power security cooperation and provides an empirical analysis of threat perception among the world’s major powers. Divided into three parts, Emil Kirchner and James Sperling use a common analytical framework for the changing security agenda in Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Russian Federation, the United States, the United Kingdom, and the EU. Each chapter features: an examination of national ‘exceptionalism’ that accounts for foreign and security policy idiosyncrasies definitions of the range of threats preoccupying the government, foreign policy elites and the public assessments of the institutional and instrumental preferences shaping national security policies investigations on the allocation of resources between the various categories of security expenditure details on the elements of the national security culture and its consequences for security cooperation. Global Security Governance combines a coherent theoretical framework with strong comparative case studies, making it ideal reading for all students of security studies.
With the ever farther advancement of globalization, governance has become one of the most prominent theoretical concepts to describe today’s world. Governance theory is concerned with a system of rule through non-hierarchical governing modes, such as networks and market mechanisms. Initially the field of security was ignored, as it was seen as the last bastion of the nation state. When the concept of security governance emerged at the beginning of the millennium, it sought to take account of transnational threats, such as nuclear proliferation or cluster bombs. However, the traditional security domain of the state, i.e. the provision of security by military force, is still exempt from governance theory. Provoked by the increasing support of private actors to military operations, Gloria Westermeyer aims to investigate whether this exemption is still valid. Based on the conduct of Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance services in the German ISAF Mission, the author examines the impact of private actors on the governance of today's military affairs. What is the relative power of private security actors vis-à-vis the state? Which factors determine if, to what extent and why private actors support the military? Under what circumstances and how may security functions be privatized without undermining the state's interest?
This book fills a gap in the literature by setting food security in the context of evolving global food governance. Today’s food system generates hunger alongside of food waste, burgeoning health problems, massive greenhouse gas emissions. Applying food system analysis to review how the international community has addressed food issues since World War II, this book proceeds to explain how actors link up in corporate global food chains and in the local food systems that feed most of the world’s population. It unpacks relevant paradigms – from productivism to food sovereignty – and highlights the significance of adopting a rights-based approach to solving food problems. The author describes how communities around the world are protecting their access to resources and building better ways of producing and accessing food, and discusses the reformed Committee on World Food Security, a uniquely inclusive global policy forum, and how it could be supportive of efforts from the base. The book concludes by identifying terrains on which work is needed to adapt the practice of the democratic public sphere and accountable governance to a global dimension and extend its authority to the world of markets and corporations. This book will be of interest to students of food security, global governance, development studies and critical security studies in general.
This book applies risk society theory to the 'War on Terror', steering the discussion away from the militaristic discourse of the Bush era towards an emphasis on global cooperation and a new cosmopolitan agenda. The literature and rhetoric of the 'War on Terror' has been dominated by dramatic high-profile military campaigns and division in the international community. This overlooks the various multilateral practices and cooperative processes that are emerging to combat global terrorism. President Bush himself had initially been at pains to stress that his 'war' on terror would be like no other; it would involve not just military tools but financial, intelligence, police and diplomatic measures too. More than eight years later, the time is right for an in-depth evaluation of this 'other' war on terror. Yet these relatively mundane regulatory dimensions have received much less attention than the 'hot' wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, where ongoing difficulties suggest that military force alone is inadequate in controlling globalised terrorism. This book aims to redress this imbalance, by foregrounding these initiatives, tracing their implementation and reflecting on the implications for International Relations. Adopting an analytical approach that seeks to incorporate theories of risk, global governance and security, this book aims to explore the overlapping multi-level and multi-lateral dynamics of the emerging global security architecture which have remained neglected and unmapped thus far in the war on terror. This book will be of interest to students of risk politics, security studies, global governance and IR in general. Yee-Kuang Heng is Lecturer in International Relations, University of St Andrews, UK. Kenneth McDonagh is Lecturer in International Relations in the School of Law and Government, Dublin City University.
‘Global governance’ has become a key concept in the contemporary study of international politics, yet what the term means and how it works remains in question. Governing the World: Cases in Global Governance takes an alternative approach to understanding the concept by exploring how global governance works in practice through a set of case studies on both classical issues of international relations such as security, labour and trade, and more contemporary concerns such as the environment, international development, and governing the internet. The book explores the processes, practice and politics of global governance by taking a broad look at issues of human rights governance and focusing on detailed aspects of a topic such as torture and rendition to help explain how governance does, or does not, work to students and researchers of international politics alike. Bringing together a diverse and international group of scholars, each chapter responds to a set of questions as to what is being governed, how and who by and offers issue-specific case studies and recommended reading to develop a full understanding of the issue explored and what it means for global governance.
Do existing measures of state fragility measure fragility accurately? Based on commonly used fragility measures, South Africa (SA) is classified as a relatively stable state, yet rising violent crime, high unemployment, endemic poverty, eroding public trust, identity group based preferential treatment policies, and the rapid rise of the private security sector are all indications that SA may be suffering from latent state fragility. Based on a comprehensive view of security, this study examines the extent to which measures of political legitimacy and good governance, effectiveness in the security system - especially with respect to the police system - and mounting economic challenges may be undermining the stability of SA in ways undetected by commonly used measures of state fragility. Using a mixed-methods approach based on quantitative secondary data analysis and semi-structured interviews with government officials, security practitioners, and leading experts in the field, this study finds that the combination of colonization, apartheid, liberation struggle, transition from autocracy to democracy, high levels of direct and structural violence, stagnating social, political, and economic developments make South Africa a latently fragile state. Conceptually, the results of this research call into question the validity of commonly used measures of state fragility and suggest the need for a more comprehensive approach to assessing state fragility. Practically, this study offers a number of concrete policy recommendations for how South Africa may address mounting levels of latent state fragility.
The authors of this volume explore the challenges of establishing democratic accountability and control over the military and other security establishments in countries which have either been the victims of authoritarian military rule or wracked by violent internal conflict. The book examines both successful democratic transitions and failed ones. A wide range of cases is covered, including Algeria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Chile, the Congo, Ghana, Nigeria, Sierre Leone, South Africa, Sri Lanka, and Turkey. The possible role of regional interventions and institutions, notably in West Africa and the Balkans, is also examined.
Corporate governance has become a household term and investors across the world are demanding more transparency and accountability from controllers of listed corporations. The current resources boom that has been driven by soaring demand from China has brought China’s listed resources companies into focus. Some of these companies are beginning to be known internationally, such as Sinopec, PetroChina, CNOOC (in the oil industry) and CHALCO (aluminium); but their governance structures are often not well known. This book explores the corporate governance of these listed companies. Compared with the governance of global companies, such as BHP Billiton, Rio Tinto, Shell, Shevron, the governance of China’s resources companies has special characteristics. While the authors focus is on the governance of resources companies in China, this book also tackles contemporary issues of resource security and environmental change which are closely related to the depletion of the world’s natural resources. Case studies of other international resources giants such as BHP Billiton, Rio Tinto, Shell and Chevron are provided to enhance our understanding of the differences that exist between them and Chinese resources companies. This book will be of interest to the business community and to those readers who are interested in China and its governance related issues.