This book is on tax justice and why it is important for peace, human rights, and a more sustainable future. It addresses sixteen different reform proposals that are urgently needed to correct the fault lines in the international tax system as it exists today, and which deprive both developing and developed countries of critical tax resources. It offers clear and concrete ideas on how the reforms can be achieved and why they are important for a more just andequitable global system to prevail.
The relationship between the worldwide tax base and source taxation. An analysis of the relationship between normative principles and interindividual equity and between interindividual equity and the structure of the income tax in a unitary fiscal setting.
Can global justice be promoted by distributing money more equitably? Could even relatively small financial sacrifices by the affluent work, through benign leverage, to achieve that goal? Global Justice and Finance casts new light on such questions by considering what is presupposed about finance. Redistributive proposals assume money to be a reliable measure, store of value, and medium of exchange. Yet maintaining stable interest, inflation, and exchange rates in a dynamic capitalist economy is a considerable achievement involving a complex financial system. Such global coordination could, if so directed, contribute immensely to humanity's betterment, yet under the direction of a profit seeking elite it leaves a majority disempowered, impoverished, and indebted. To pay debts, ever more desperate measures to wrest value from the world's natural resources increase ecological pressures to harmful extremes, and those pressures do not stop short of driving wars. The profit seeking economy is held in place by the complex legal arrangements that constitute finance. Globally, there has developed, unannounced and unaccountably, what amounts to a privatised constitution - binding agreements that transcend sovereign jurisdictions. Hopes of redirecting the financial assets created within this system, by means of modest reforms, towards objectives of social justice and ecological sustainability may prove illusory. To achieve such objectives arguably requires the constitution of a global normative order guided by public and political decision-making. The achievement of a publicly accountable constitutional order that is superordinate to the financial system might be regarded as a revolutionary transformation.
Document from the year 2020 in the subject Business economics - Accounting and Taxes, grade: 10, , language: English, abstract: In the Addressing Base Erosion and Profit Shifting Report, there are certain key tax principles and opportunities for Base Erosion and Profit Shifting that have been analyzed, such as jurisdiction to tax, transfer pricing, leverage and anti-avoidance. Further in these key pressure areas of the Report have been discussed in detail as different chapters of this dissertation. As the world becomes more globalized and resources become more internationally mobile, the issue related to international taxation is moving to the forefront of debates surrounding national tax system. The process of globalization has led to increased competition among businesses in the global market place. International taxation generally refers to the tax treatment of cross-national transactions. Since each nation has its own tax rules and the rules of one nation are rarely perfectly meshed with those of another, it is possible that income will be taxed more than once which is sometimes referred to as double taxation or that it will go untaxed by any jurisdiction. To prevent this, usually countries adopt different methods. In principal, two methods of taxation are there i.e. the territorial (or source) system of taxation and the worldwide (or residence) system. Base Erosion and Profit Shifting by the multinational enterprises or by the individuals is one of the current problem by which the whole world suffering. To curb this problem Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has unveiled its report on Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) on 12 February, 2013. The Report has attempted to identify and tackle the global issue of tax base erosion, which in present time has achieved gigantic proportions. There is a growing perception that Governments across world lose substantial revenue due to tax avoidance because of planning aimed at eroding the tax the taxable base or shifting profits to favorable tax jurisdiction. Keeping cognizance of this situation, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) recommends a holistic and planned approach to address the problem of Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS).
Virtually all objections to taxation schemes spring from perceptions of unfairness. Is tax fairness possible? The question is certainly worth investigating in depth, and that is the purpose of this book. Today, as governments are busily making new tax rules in the wake of staggering budget deficits, is perhaps an appropriate time to pay heed to fairness so it can be incorporated as far as possible into tax reform. With twelve contributions from some of the world’s most respected international tax experts—including the late Paul McDaniel, in whose honor these essays were assembled—this invaluable book focuses on tax expenditure analysis, the quest for a just income tax, and division and/or harmonization of the income tax base among jurisdictions. Among the areas of taxation ripe for reform from a fairness point of view the authors single out the following: tax expenditure budget construction; tax expenditure reporting; modern welfare economics as a driver of tax reform; grantor trust rules; the notion of “horizontal equity”; the international tax norm of “income source”; transfer pricing; and jurisdictional application of VAT. Specific ongoing reforms in the United States, Australia, and other countries—as well a detailed analysis of the EU’s proposed common consolidated corporate tax base (CCCTB)—are also examined for fairness. As a timely, high-quality resource that effectively tackles an array of salient issues, this is a book that will be read and studied by tax practitioners, corporate tax experts, government tax policy makers, advisers and consultants on the reform and design of tax systems, and international organizations involved in standard setting related to tax administration, as well as academics and researchers.
The book combines interdisciplinary teams from business, economics, information science, law and political science to offer a unique and innovative interdisciplinary approach to the issue of international tax coordination.
This volume presents philosophical contributions examining questions of the grounding and justification of taxation and different types of taxes such as inheritance, wealth, consumption or income tax in relation to justice and the concept of a just society. The chapters cover the different levels at which the discussion on taxation and justice takes place: On the principal level, chapters investigate the justification and grounding of taxation as such and the role taxation plays and should play in the design of justice, be it for a just society or a just world order. On a more concrete level, chapters present discussions of these general reflections in more depth and examine different types of taxation, tax systems and their design and implementation. On an applied level, chapters discuss certain specific taxes, such as wealth and inheritance taxes, and examine whether or not a certain tax should be favored and for what reasons as well as why it is just to target certain kinds of assets or income. Finally, this volume contains chapters that discuss the central issue of international and global taxation and their relation to global justice.
Offshore reveals how the vast network of unregulated financial centers—from Luxemburg to the Cayman islands to the tiny Pacific haven of Nauru— amount to a nether realm of drug and arms trade profits, enormous private accounts, and multinational corporate financial holdings. Delving into the scandals, the financial structure, and the history of this hidden side of globalization, sociologist Alain Deneault depicts something larger and more ominous than simple “tax havens” where financial elites and corporations must reside X days out of every calendar year to protect their earnings. Instead, Offshore describes a global base of operations from which massive criminal enterprises and corrupt corporations operate freely and with impunity, menacing developing nations and advanced democracies alike.
This treatise examines income as a surrogate for the underlying features of an individual's well-being, for the purpose of achieving horizontal equity in taxation. Part I analyses the development of a variety of income concepts. The foundation concept of income, based on the Schanz-Haig-Simons wealth accrual and consumption models, is found to be the most appropriate measure of income that might be used in tax practice to achieve the equity objective. Other economic concepts of income and accounting and legal concepts of income are tested against the foundation concept as a benchmark to identify their congruence with, and divergence from, that standard. The objective is to seek a route towards the practical application of the foundation concept of income, which improves the existing notion of taxable income. Part II of the book investigates discrepancies between the ways that net receipts and economic gains from selected economic events (business transactions, capital gains transactions, gifting, provision of benefits in kind, and generation of imputed income from owner-use of assets, self performed services and leisure) are included in or excluded from taxable income. The aim is to determine whether the differences are logical and equitable. To enhance tax equity, the thesis advocates the adoption of a comprehensive concept of income, which is closely aligned to the foundation concept of income, for practical taxation purposes. The text draws extensively on case law, particularly from the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, and the United States of America.
The world has changed a lot in the last thirty years, but New Zealand’s tax system hasn’t. Since the 1980s New Zealand’s taxation policy has remained the same, despite substantial economic and social changes. The system may be familiar, but is it fair? Deborah Russell and Terry Baucher’s lively analysis shows why answers to this question cut to the heart of whether New Zealand can be considered an egalitarian country. Drawing on the latest evidence and using plain language, they explore thorny issues such as the taxation of housing, multinationals and inequality between generations. The remedies proposed in this short book will help change the way New Zealanders think about tax in the twenty-first century.
In its most advanced form, e-commerce allows unidentified purchasers to pay obscure vendors in 'electronic cash' for products that are often goods, services and licenses all rolled into one. This book considers the implications for the domestic and international tax systems of the growth of e-commerce. It covers a wide variety of activities, from discussion of the principles governing direct and indirect taxation, to explanation of the implementation and use of e-commerce on the part of businesses as well as the application of existing tax principles in this field. With its focus on the broader issues surrounding the expansion of e-commerce and its attention to the problems arising internationally in this field, Global Perspectives in E-Commerce Taxation Law will appeal to scholars worldwide.
Over the past few decades, the concentration of wealth and property in the hands of a few has been facilitated by tax evasion, tax avoidance, and above all by tax competition. Fortunately, a determined move toward international cooperation among tax authorities is gathering its forces to do battle. This invaluable book shows how the globalization of trade, the digitization of the economy, tax competition between sovereign states, the erosion of the tax base, and the transfer of pro ts have all revealed the weaknesses of a traditional tax system that has reached its limits, and how numerous states and groups of states have joined efforts in creating a new international tax system designed to restore fairness and stability in the levying of taxes worldwide. Stemming from a 2016 conference initiated by the Canadian non-pro t organization TaxCOOP, convened by the World Bank and bringing together well-known taxation experts from prominent international organizations, the book presents outstanding contributions highlighting the impacts of tax competition and viable solutions. Among the issues and topics covered are the following: – electronic commerce and electronic money; – transfer pricing; – derivatives and hedge funds; – protecting tax whistle-blowers; – offshore tax investigations; – possibility of an international tax court; – impact of tax competition on developing countries; – carbon pricing; – tobacco taxation; and – effective taxation of the ultra-wealthy and their nancial capital. The chapters include details of country experiences and results, in some cases analyzed by key protagonists themselves. Collectively, the contributions take a giant step toward reinforcing the power of sovereign states in sectors such as the environment, education, and health. As an authoritative guide to increasing the level of transparency and accountability of private and public economic actors and restoring citizens’ trust in the fairness of our global governance systems, this peerless volume will be warmly welcomed by tax lawyers, taxation authorities, and interested academics worldwide.
The papers in this volume explore the idea of distributive justice and fairness in taxation. The collection begins with Head's excellent presentation and analysis of equity in the public finance literature. The other authors, starting from this point, critique and amplify the concept from various philosophical perspectives and academic disciplines.
The last several years have seen fundamental changes to the UK tax system. Nearly the entirety of the UK corporation tax and international tax rules have been rewritten by three new statutes – the Corporation Tax Acts 2009 and 2010 and the Taxation (International and Other Provisions) Act 2010. The UK has also implemented major new policies affecting the taxation of pensions, charities, savings vehicles, 'non-doms' and the foreign profits of UK companies. In addition, European Union law, and especially the case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union, has had an increasingly important impact on UK corporation tax and international tax law in particular. This new book on advanced topics in UK tax law is derived from material previously found in John Tiley's major text on Revenue Law that has been expanded and comprehensively updated to take account of these developments. The book deals with Corporation Tax, International and European Tax, Savings and Charities, in a manageable and portable volume for law students and practitioners. It complements the material on UK Income Tax, Capital Gains Tax, and Inheritance Tax found in Revenue Law, 7th edition. Unlike other tax law books, this text explains the new rules found in CTA 2009, CTA 2010 and TIOPA 2010 in light of its legislative predecessors. The book contains extensive references to the new legislation and also to the former enactments in ICTA 1988 and elsewhere. Those familiar with the old law but wanting to find their way round the new will find this work particularly valuable. The book is designed for law students taking advanced tax courses in the final year of their law degree course and for graduate students, but is intended to be of interest to all who enjoy tax law. Its purpose is not only to provide an account of the rules but to include citation of the relevant literature from legal periodicals and some discussion of or reference to the background material in terms of policy, history or other countries' tax systems.