Genes, genetic codes, and mutation. Dynamics of genes in populations. Evolutionary change in nucleotide sequences. Rates and patterns of nucleotide substitution. Molecular phylogenetics. Gene duplication, exon shuffling, and concerted evolution. Evolution by transposition. Genome evolution. Spatial and temporal frameworks of the evolutionary process. Basics of probability.
This title describes the driving forces behind the evolutionary process at the molecular and genome levels, the effects of the various molecular mechanisms on the structure of genes, proteins, and genomes.
Bioinformatics for Beginners: Genes, Genomes, Molecular Evolution, Databases and Analytical Tools provides a coherent and friendly treatment of bioinformatics for any student or scientist within biology who has not routinely performed bioinformatic analysis. The book discusses the relevant principles needed to understand the theoretical underpinnings of bioinformatic analysis and demonstrates, with examples, targeted analysis using freely available web-based software and publicly available databases. Eschewing non-essential information, the work focuses on principles and hands-on analysis, also pointing to further study options. Avoids non-essential coverage, yet fully describes the field for beginners Explains the molecular basis of evolution to place bioinformatic analysis in biological context Provides useful links to the vast resource of publicly available bioinformatic databases and analysis tools Contains over 100 figures that aid in concept discovery and illustration
Contents: Status of the World s Livestock Genetic Resources: Preparation of the First Report on the State of the World s Animal Genetic Resources, Status of the World s Fishery Genetic Resources, Global Overview of Crop Genetic Resources, Efforts Towards Assessing the Global Status of Forest Genetic Resources, The Potential of Cryopreservation and Reproductive Technologies for Animal Genetic Resources Conservation Strategies, Status of Cryopreservation Technologies in Plants (Crops and Forest Trees), Use of Molecular Markers and Other Information for Sampling Germplasm to Create An Animal Gene Bank, Genetic Characterization of Livestock Populations and its Use in Conservation Decision-making, Genetic Characterization of Populations and its Use in Conservation Decision-making in Fish, Molecular Marker Based Analysis for Crop Germplasm Preservation, Molecular Analysis of Gene Banks for Sustainable Conservation and Increased Use of Crop Genetic Resources, Genetic Characterization and its Use in Decision-making for the Conservation of Crop Germplasm, The Role of Biotechnology in the Conservation, Sustainable Use and Genetic Enhancement of Bioresources in Fragile Ecosystems, Genetic Diversity in Forest Tree Populations and Conservation: Analysis of Neutral and Adaptive Variation, Background Document to the e-mail Conference on the Role of Biotechnology for the Characterization and Conservation of Crop, Forest, Animal and Fishery Genetic Resources in Developing Countries, Summary of Discussion for the e-mail Conference on the Role of Biotechnology for the Characterization and Conservation of Crop, Forest, Animal and Fishery Genetic Resources in Developing Countries.
Evolutionary biology has increasingly relied upon tools developed in molecular biology that allow for the structure and function of macromolecules to be used as data for exploring the patterns and processes of evolutionary change. Integrated Molecular Evolution, Second Edition is a textbook intended to expansively and comprehensive review evolutionary studies now routinely using molecular data. This new edition has been thoroughly updated and expanded, and provides a basic summary of evolutionary biology as well as a review of current phylogenetics and phylogenomics. Reflecting a burgeoning pedagogical landscape, this new edition includes nearly double the number of chapters, including a new section on molecular and bioinformatic methods. Dedicated chapters were added on: Evolution of the genetic code Mendelian genetics and population genetics Natural selection Horizontal gene transfers Animal development and plant development Cancer Extraction of biological molecules Analytical methods Sequencing methods and sequencing analyses Omics Phylogenetics and phylogenetic networks Protein trafficking Human genomics More than 400 illustrations appear in this edition, doubling the number included in the first edition, and over 100 of these diagrams are now in color. The second edition combines and integrates extensive summaries of genetics and evolutionary biology in a manner that is accessible for students at either the graduate or undergraduate level. It also provides both the basic foundations of molecular evolution, such as the structure and function of DNA, RNA and proteins, as well as more advanced chapters reviewing analytical techniques for obtaining sequences, and interpreting and archiving molecular and genomic data.
During the last ten years, remarkable progress has occurred in the study of molecular evolution. Among the most important factors that are responsible for this progress are the development of new statistical methods and advances in computational technology. In particular, phylogenetic analysis of DNA or protein sequences has become a powerful tool for studying molecular evolution. Along with this developing technology, the application of the new statistical and computational methods has become more complicated and there is no comprehensive volume that treats these methods in depth. Molecular Evolution and Phylogenetics fills this gap and present various statistical methods that are easily accessible to general biologists as well as biochemists, bioinformatists and graduate students. The text covers measurement of sequence divergence, construction of phylogenetic trees, statistical tests for detection of positive Darwinian selection, inference of ancestral amino acid sequences, construction of linearized trees, and analysis of allele frequency data. Emphasis is given to practical methods of data analysis, and methods can be learned by working through numerical examples using the computer program MEGA2 that is provided.
This impressive author team brings the wealth of advances in conservation genetics into the new edition of this introductory text, including new chapters on population genomics and genetic issues in introduced and invasive species. They continue the strong learning features for students - main points in the margin, chapter summaries, vital support with the mathematics, and further reading - and now guide the reader to software and databases. Many new references reflect the expansion of this field. With examples from mammals, birds,...
"The goal of this book is to disseminate research results and best practices from cross-disciplinary researchers and practitioners interested in, and working on bioinformatics, data mining, and proteomics"--Provided by publisher.
In recent years the fundamental concepts and applied methodologies of molecular similarity analysis have experienced a revolutionary development. Motivated by the increased degree of understanding of elementary molecular properties on the levels ranging from fundamental quantum chemistry to the complex interactions of biomolecules, and aided by the spectacular progress in computer technology and access to computer power, the area has opened up to many new ideas and new approaches. This book covers topics in quantum similarity approaches, electron density shape analysis methods, and it provides better theoretical understanding of molecular similarity. Additionally, quantitative shape analysis, especially activity relations (QShAR) and the prediction of the pharmacological or toxicological effects of molecules in the related context of quantum QSAR (QQSAR). This volume written by the experts in the various subfields of molecular similarity, provides a collection of the most recent ideas, advances, and methodologies. It is the hope of the Editors that by representing these topics within a single volume, the readers will find a balanced overview of the status of the field. We also hope that the book will serve as a tool for selecting and assessing the best approach for various new types of problems of molecular similarity that may arise and it will provide a set of easy references for further studies and applications.
The Logic of Chance offers a reappraisal and a new synthesis of theories, concepts, and hypotheses on the key aspects of the evolution of life on earth in light of comparative genomics and systems biology. The author presents many specific examples from systems and comparative genomic analysis to begin to build a new, much more detailed, complex, and realistic picture of evolution. The book examines a broad range of topics in evolutionary biology including the inadequacy of natural selection and adaptation as the only or even the main mode of evolution; the key role of horizontal gene transfer in evolution and the consequent overhaul of the Tree of Life concept; the central, underappreciated evolutionary importance of viruses; the origin of eukaryotes as a result of endosymbiosis; the concomitant origin of cells and viruses on the primordial earth; universal dependences between genomic and molecular-phenomic variables; and the evolving landscape of constraints that shape the evolution of genomes and molecular phenomes. "Koonin's account of viral and pre-eukaryotic evolution is undoubtedly up-to-date. His "mega views" of evolution (given what was said above) and his cosmological musings, on the other hand, are interesting reading." Summing Up: Recommended Reprinted with permission from CHOICE, copyright by the American Library Association.
This book focuses primarily on the role of interfacial forces in understanding biological phenomena at the molecular scale. By providing a suitable statistical mechanical apparatus to handle the biomolecular interface, the book becomes uniquely positioned to address core problems in molecular biophysics. It highlights the importance of interfacial tension in delineating a solution to the protein folding problem, in unravelling the physico-chemical basis of enzyme catalysis and protein associations, and in rationally designing molecular targeted therapies. Thus grounded in fundamental science, the book develops a powerful technological platform for drug discovery, while it is set to inspire scientists at any level in their careers determined to address the major challenges in molecular biophysics. The acknowledgment of how exquisitely the structure and dynamics of proteins and their aqueous environment are related attests to the overdue recognition that biomolecular phenomena cannot be effectively understood without dealing with interfacial behaviour. There is an urge to grasp how biologically relevant behaviour is shaped by the structuring of biomolecular interfaces and how interfacial tension affects the molecular events that take place in the cell. This book squarely addresses these needs from a physicist perspective. The book may serve as a monograph for practitioners and, alternatively, as an advanced textbook. Fruitful reading requires a background in physical chemistry and some basics in biophysics. The selected problems at the end of the chapters and the progression in conceptual difficulty make it a suitable textbook for a graduate level course or an elective course for seniors majoring in chemistry, physics, biomedical engineering or related disciplines.
This book provides an in-depth analysis of the mechanisms and biological consequences of genome rearrangements in bacteria. Genome rearrangements are a result of the actions of discrete genetic elements such as conjugative transposons, plasmids, phage, and non-conjugative transposons. Bacteria also contain systems to mediate genetic rearrangements such as the general recombination pathway and specialized endogenous recombination mechanisms. The biological effects of these rearrangements are far-reaching and impact on bacterial virulence, antibiotic resistance and the ability of bacteria to avoid the attentions of the host immune system (e.g. antigenic variation). These rearrangements also provide the raw material on which natural selection can act. Each chapter examines the mechanisms involved in genome rearrangements and the direct biological consequences of these events. This book is written by leading research workers and is an invaluable resource for graduate students and researchers in this field.
The steroid / nuclear receptor superfamily is a large and growing group of transcription factors that are studied by a large and varied number of basic and clinical researchers. The first two chapters describe the evolutionary biology of the superfamily and explain how to clone and characterize new receptors. Chapter 3 shows how to identify the ligands of novel receptors and chapter 4 explains the kinetic analysis of receptor interactions. In chapter 5, the reader is guided through the functional characterization of coactivators using microinjection. The next section covers receptor phosphorylation, ligand regulated transcription, and hormone resistance syndromes. Chapter 9 describes the in vitro assembly of Hsp90 complexes and chapter 10 explains yeast as a model system for looking at receptor function. The final chapter shows how heterologous proteins can be regulated by fusion to the hormone binding domain of a receptor. Nuclear Receptors: A Practical Approach is a comprehensive guide to studying members of the superfamily and will be invaluable to all researchers old and new.
Studies of evolution at the molecular level have experienced phenomenal growth in the last few decades, due to rapid accumulation of genetic sequence data, improved computer hardware and software, and the development of sophisticated analytical methods. The flood of genomic data has generated an acute need for powerful statistical methods and efficient computational algorithms to enable their effective analysis and interpretation. Molecular Evolution: a statistical approach presents and explains modern statistical methods and computational algorithms for the comparative analysis of genetic sequence data in the fields of molecular evolution, molecular phylogenetics, statistical phylogeography, and comparative genomics. Written by an expert in the field, the book emphasizes conceptual understanding rather than mathematical proofs. The text is enlivened with numerous examples of real data analysis and numerical calculations to illustrate the theory, in addition to the working problems at the end of each chapter. The coverage of maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods are in particular up-to-date, comprehensive, and authoritative. This advanced textbook is aimed at graduate level students and professional researchers (both empiricists and theoreticians) in the fields of bioinformatics and computational biology, statistical genomics, evolutionary biology, molecular systematics, and population genetics. It will also be of relevance and use to a wider audience of applied statisticians, mathematicians, and computer scientists working in computational biology.
Cell And Molecular Biology, Second Edition Gives An Extensive Coverage Of The Fundamentals Of Molecular Biology; The Problems It Addresses And The Methods It Uses. Molecular Biology Is Presented As An Information Science, Describing Molecular Steps That Nature Uses To Replicate And Repair Dna; Regulate Expression Of Genes; Process And Translate The Coded Information In Mrna; Modify And Target Proteins In The Cell; Integrate And Regulate Metabolism.Written In A Lucid Style, The Book Will Serve As An Ideal Text For Undergraduate Students, As Well As Scientific Workers Of Other Disciplines Who Need A Comprehensive Overview Of The Subject.Features Of The Second Editionò Incorporates Many New Topics And Updatesò Gives Independent Chapters On Dna Replication, Dna Repair, Transcription And Translation To Accommodate Recent Advancesò A New Chapter On Post-Translational Modification And Protein Targetingò A Chapter On Tools And Techniques Employed In Molecular Biologyò An Introductory Chapter On Bioinformatics Included To Emphasise That Molecular Processes Can Be Addressed Computationallyò Extensive Glossary.
On 800 pages this textbook provides students and professionals in life sciences, pharmacy and biochemistry with a very detailed introduction to molecular and cell biology, including standard techniques, key topics, and biotechnology in industry.
Biological Science Fundamentals and Systematics is a component of Encyclopedia of Biological, Physiological and Health Sciences in the global Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), which is an integrated compendium of twenty one Encyclopedias. The Theme on Biological Science Fundamentals and Systematics provides the essential aspects and a myriad of issues of great relevance to our world such as: History and Scope of Biological Sciences; The Origin and Evolution of Early Life; Evolution; Classification and Diversity of Life Forms; Systematics of Microbial Kingdom (s) and Fungi; Systematic Botany; Systematic Zoology: Invertebrates; Systematic Zoology: Vertebrates which are then expanded into multiple subtopics, each as a chapter. These four volumes are aimed at the following five major target audiences: University and College students Educators, Professional practitioners, Research personnel and Policy analysts, managers, and decision makers and NGOs.