This volume presents the papers given at the meeting "Estuarine Management and Quality Assessment" held at Trinity College, Dublin in September 1983. The meeting was organised by the Environmental Sci ences Unit, TCD and the Estuarine and Brackish-Water Sciences Associ ation and was attended by delegates from the United Kingdom, Ireland, France, Holland and Portugal. The theme for the meeting was deliberately chosen in an attempt to bring together the various disciplines and interests in the field of estuarine quality, and the extent to which this objective was met may be judged from the diversity of the contributions. The meeting was arranged under three sub-headings which could be roughly summar ised thu- a) Modelling - as representative of the engineering hydrodynamicist approach. b) Impact - as representative of the biologist-type approach. c) Management - attempting to reconcile the different approaches to, and demands on, the estuary. In fact, since most contributions overlapped into the other two categories, the order in this volume has been changed somewhat from the meeting, and we feel that this book may be fairly presented as one unit. Contributions for which it was not possible to give full transcripts have been included, for completeness, as abstracts. In each session, an invited speaker summarised the state of the art, and the other speakers followed up by describing some new approach to or refinement of the problem.
Estuaries are the interface between man and the sea. and they are the channels for the impact of man on the marine environment. Because they are to a greater or lesser extent connected to the sea. they have traditionally been regarded as part of that seemingly infinite resource. or at best an open-ended means of access to it. This approach has led to conflicts between the users of the estuary. and with the increase not only in population but more particularly in the developed countries in manufacturing output. these conflicts have become more and more acute . The estuary should always be regarded as a resource. and a finite resource at that. and the problem in management is to optimise the use of that resource. It is clearly wasteful and inefficient not to use it to its full capacity. and this includes both overuse of the system. such that the whole thing collapses. and underuse. in which there is still spare capacity for one use or another. The objective of this book is to explore the uses to which estuaries are put and the means by which the performance of the system under load may be assessed. It seems appropriate here to mention that although this book will be talking about estuaries. the majority of it will be applicable also to lagoons. semi-enclosed bays and other such systems.
This volume contains the papers and abstracts of the posters given at the symposium on Long-term Changes in Coastal Benthic Communities organized by the Commission of the European Communities in Brussels, Belgium from 9 till 12 December 1985. The organization of this symposium came to conclude five years of activities in the COST 647 project on Coastal Benthic Ecology, the rationale of which is explained in the foreword by B. F. Keegan. The importance of this volume is that for the first time special attention is given to long-term data series of relevant biological variables collected in different marine benthic habitats. Many of the data presented here are the result of years of careful data collection by some of the leading scientists in the field of benthic ecology. Some of the series, such as the Macoma balthica data from the Wadden Sea or the macrofauna data from Loch Linnhe, to name just those two, are already classics in the marine biological literature. Other data were collected in the framework of a monitoring programme and are now analyzed for the first time in the different perspective of the COST 647 project. Several papers are from related fields where they represent well known case studies; they were chosen in order to see how problems have been tackled elsewhere.
Experience demonstrates that none of the available measures regarding biological effects of pollution can be considered ideal, which is due to the complexity inherent in assessing the environmental quality of a system. In fact, it is always preferable to combine a suite of indices providing complementary information. This book aims at helping researchers and students, as well as managers and authorities of coastal areas in selecting the most suitable ecological indicators for each case, taking into account the type of disturbance they want to assess and the data available to do it. A user friendly guide is proposed, accounting different theoretical approaches and discussing the results of its application in different geographical areas. Recommendations are provided regarding the most adequate application of different indices, illustrating for instance in what situations their use is recommendable, or on the contrary not advisable, depending on the characteristics of the disturbance, the type of data, or the level of taxonomic identification of the organisms.
Written by economists and policy analysts at Resources for the Future, a Washington, DC, think tank with a tradition for independent, objective research, this collection of twenty-five 'memos to the President' offers constructive policy options for the elected administration on critical challenges related to energy, the environment, and natural resources. Each contributor to New Approaches on Energy and the Environment was asked to address the question: 'Based on your research and knowledge, what policy recommendation would you like to make to the next U.S. president?' Writing in advance of the 2004 election so as to keep their essays free of partisan interpretations, the authors were asked not to confine their suggestions to what the prevailing wisdom says is politically possible. They also took pains to make their ideas accessible to a busy president as well as a wide range of readers interested in a concise and authoritative overview of the nation's energy and environmental policy choices. The results are provocative, sometimes controversial, but highly readable essays on topics including climate change, oil dependency, electricity regulation, brownfields revitalization, forest service administration, air and water quality, and environmental health issues such as food safety and the growing threat of antibiotic resistance. When the President takes office in January, 2005, he will confront competing perspectives about the priorities and approaches that should apply to energy and environmental policy: Americans want cleaner air and water and healthy and attractive surroundings, but they also want inexpensive fuel, comfortable cars and houses, and continued economic growth. New Approaches on Energy and the Environment provides thought-provoking, commonsense contributions to debates about important energy and environmental issues confronting the U.S. today.
Estuaries are among the most biologically productive ecosystems on the planet--critical to the life cycles of fish, other aquatic animals, and the creatures which feed on them. Estuarine Ecology, Second Edition, covers the physical and chemical aspects of estuaries, the biology and ecology of key organisms, the flow of organic matter through estuaries, and human interactions, such as the environmental impact of fisheries on estuaries and the effects of global climate change on these important ecosystems. Authored by a team of world experts from the estuarine science community, this long-awaited, full-color edition includes new chapters covering phytoplankton, seagrasses, coastal marshes, mangroves, benthic algae, Integrated Coastal Zone Management techniques, and the effects of global climate change. It also features an entriely new section on estuarine ecosystem processes, trophic webs, ecosystem metabolism, and the interactions between estuaries and other ecosystems such as wetlands and marshes
Coastal zones play a key role in Earth System functioning and form an “edge for society” providing a significant contribution to the life support systems. Goods and services derived from coastal systems depend strongly on multiple transboundary interactions with the land, atmosphere, open ocean and sea bottom. Increasing demands on coastal resources driven by human habitation, food security, recreation and transportation accelerate the exploitation of the coastal landscape and water bodies. Many coastal areas and human activities are subject to increasing risks from natural and man-induced hazards such as flooding resulting from major changes in hydrology of river systems that has reached a global scale. Changes in the hydrological cycle coupled with changes in land and water management alter fluxes of materials transmitted from river catchments to the coastal zone, which have a major effect on coastal ecosystems. The increasing complexity of underlying processes and forcing functions that drive changes on coastal systems are witnessed at a multiplicity of temporal and spatial scales.
Coastal watersheds differ from others by their unique features, including proximity to the ocean, weather and rainfall patterns, subsurface features, and land covers. Land use changes and competing needs for valuable water and land resources are especially more distinctive to such watersheds. This book covers recent research relevant to coastal watersheds. It addresses the impact of a stream’s chemical, biological, and sediment pollutants on the quality of the receiving waters, such as estuaries, bays, and near-shore waters. The contents of the book can be divided into three sections; a) overview of hydrological modelling, b) water quality assessment, and c) watershed management. This book differs from other hydrology books by dealing with coastal watersheds which are characterized by their unique features: including weather and rainfall patterns, subsurface characteristics, and land use and cover. In addition to academia, the book should be of interest to organizations concerned with watershed management, such as local and federal governments and environmental groups. Overall, the book is expected to satisfy a great need toward understanding and managing critical areas in many parts of the world.
In this landmark publication, leading experts detail how remote sensing and related geospatial technologies can be used for coastal ecosystem assessment and management. This book is divided into three major parts. In the first part several conceptual and technical issues of applying remote sensing and geospatial technologies in the coastal environment are examined. The second part showcases some of the latest developments in the use of remote sensing and geospatial technologies when characterizing coastal waters, submerged aquatic vegetation, benthic habitats, shorelines, coastal wetlands and watersheds. Finally, the last part demonstrates a watershed-wide synthetic approach that links upstream stressors with downstream responses for integrated coastal ecosystem assessment and management.
Estuarine Processes, Volume I: Uses, Stresses, and Adaptation to the Estuary provides information pertinent to estuarine processes and focuses on dynamic interactions at several levels of organization. This book presents the strategies to rehabilitate and protect estuaries. Organized into seven parts encompassing 37 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the alternative ways of attaining the pervasive goals of pollution abatement and estuarine management. This text then discusses the significance of maintaining estuarine environment quality if fisheries are to continue. Other chapters consider the great value of the estuarine zone, which lies in the multiplicity of uses it serves, but herein also lies its vulnerability. This book discusses as well the identification of the major factors regulating phytoplankton productivity and regulating the level of phytoplankton biomass. The final chapter deals with assessing the potential deleterious effects of certain toxicants to penaeid shrimp. This book is a valuable resource for ecologists, environmentalists, and scientists.
As the coastal human population increases in the United States, there will likely be increasing environmental and socioeconomic pressures on our coastal and estuarine environments. Monitoring the condition of all our nation's coastal and estuarine ecosystems over the long term is more than any one program can accomplish on its own. Therefore, it is crucial that monitoring programs at all levels (local, state, and federal) cooperate in the collection, sharing, and use of environmental data. This volume is the proceedings of the Coastal Monitoring Through Partnerships symposium that was held in Pensacola, Florida in April of 2001, and was organized by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP), and the Council of State Governments (CSG). It contains papers that describe various multi-disciplinary coastal and estuarine environmental monitoring programs, designed and implemented by using regional and national partnerships with federal and state agencies, academia, Native American tribes, and nongovernmental organizations. In addition, it includes papers on modeling and data management; monitoring and assessment of benthic communities; development of biological indicators and interlaboratory sediment comparisons; microbiological modeling and indicators; and monitoring and assessment of phytoplankton and submerged aquatic vegetation. There are many components involved in determining the overall impacts of anthropogenic stressors on coastal and estuarine waters. It will take strong partnerships like those described in this volume to ensure that we have healthy and sustainable coastal and estuarine environments, now and in the future.
The first two decades of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program have provided a successful and useful assessment of U.S. water-quality conditions, how they have changed over time, and how natural features and human activities have affected those conditions. Now, planning is underway for the third decade (Cycle 3) of the Program outlined in the Science Plan, with challenges including ensuring that the NAWQA remain a national program in the face of declining resources, balancing new activities against long-term studies, and maintaining focus amidst numerous and competing stakeholder demands. The Science Plan for Cycle 3 articulates a forward-thinking vision for NAWQA science over the next decade, building on the previous cycles' data, experience, and products. Preparing for the Third Decade (Cycle 3) of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program explains the national needs outlined in the plan, NAWQA's need to emphasize collaboration with other USGS and external programs, other federal agencies, state and local governments, and the private sector.