Key Terms: cross laminated timber, displacement-based seismic design, time history analysis, multi-storey timber structures, hysteretic behaviour
The development of cross-laminated timber (CLT) panel technology has opened up new opportunities for wood in tall buildings. Several characteristics including seismic performance and speed of construction have raised interest among designers. As CLT gains acceptance in the industry, alternative structural solutions need to be investigated to improve performance of CLT as a building material. The first study presented is an assessment of the viability of hybrid poplar for use in CLT panels. Hybrid poplar is a low density species, which is not typically considered for structural applications. Low density species have the potential to improve the structural efficiency of CLT panels. The tests conducted are based on the qualification of panels outlined in the ANSI/APA PRG-320: Standard for Performance-Rated Cross-Laminated Timber to determine the structural viability of the CLT panels. The second study presented is an investigation of a new alternative energy dissipation solution to be used with cross-laminated timber rocking walls for seismic design. The energy dissipators are designed as a structural fuse which can be easily replaced after failure following a large seismic event. The results of this study give insight to alternative solutions for CLT to improve upon current applications.
Although the disciplines of architecture and structural engineering have both experienced their own historical development, their interaction has resulted in many fascinating and delightful structures. To take this interaction to a higher level, there is a need to stimulate the inventive and creative design of architectural structures and to persua
Developed in Europe in the early 1990's, cross-laminated timber (CLT) is beginning to make its way into the North American building construction market. Similar to other types of engineered wood products, such as Glulam, CLT is an efficient and economical way to use natural wood resources. This report introduces the product with its structural characteristics, advantages and disadvantages, manufacturing, and construction. ANSI/APA PRG 320 Standard for Performance-Rated Cross-Laminated Timber published by APA - The Engineered Wood Association is the manufacturing standard for CLT in the United States. Manufacturers will supply reference design values for design engineers to check the strength of CLT members. Methods used to determine reference design values include experimental and analytical studies. CLT has many benefits in construction but also has challenges due to architects', engineers', and contractors' unfamiliarity with the product. A few projects have been built using CLT in the United States including a building at Oregon State University and one at the University of Arkansas.
Papers presented at the 2018 International Conference on High Performance and Optimum Design of Structures and Materials are contained in this volume. These papers address issues involving advanced types of structures, particularly those based on new concepts or new materials and their system design. The use of novel materials and new structural concepts nowadays is not restricted to highly technical areas like aerospace, aeronautical applications or the automotive industry, but affects all engineering fields including those such as civil engineering and architecture. Most high performance structures require the development of a generation of new materials, which can more easily resist a range of external stimuli or react in a non-conventional manner. Particular emphasis is placed on intelligent structures and materials as well as the application of computational methods for their modelling, control and management. Optimisation problems discussed in this book involve those related to size, shape and topology of structures and materials. Optimisation techniques have much to offer to those involved in the design of new industrial products. The development of new algorithms and the appearance of powerful commercial computer codes with easy to use graphical interfaces has created a fertile field for the incorporation of optimisation in the design process in all engineering disciplines. The latest developments in design, optimisation, manufacturing and experimentation are highlighted in this book.
This new resource covers the material selection, structural design and connections detailing of truly sustainable timber buildings through: consideration of the nature of wood and the heritage of timber construction, including the importance of forestry and conservation a review of modern techniques to improve the durability, fire resistance and predictability of structural timber elements and their vital connections analysis of the many architectural and structural options, from roundwood shells through glulam arches and gridshells to long span hybrid structures case studies from around the world illustrating the principles discussed and the true potential of timber construction Historically there has been an imbalance between the availability of information on structural timber design and the much more widespread familiarity with traditional structural materials such as steel and concrete. This book aims to help redress the balance by presenting the essential design principles involved in the creation of elegant, user-friendly timber buildings that are practical, economic, and thoroughly sustainable. Designed to support specialist study into the benefits of 21st Century timber engineering, this book also offers architects, engineers and other construction professionals practical advice on all aspects of modern timber architecture.
Structural Timber Design to Eurocode 5 provides practising engineers and specialist contractors with comprehensive, detailed information and in-depth guidance on the design of timber structures based on the common rules and rules for buildings in Eurocode 5 – Part 1-1. It will also be of interest to undergraduate and postgraduate students of civil and structural engineering. It provides a step-by-step approach to the design of all of the commonly used timber elements and connections using solid timber, glued laminated timber or wood based structural products, and incorporates the requirements of the UK National Annex. It covers: strength and stiffness properties of timber and its reconstituted and engineered products key requirements of Eurocode 0, Eurocode 1 and Eurocode 5 – Part 1-1 design of beams and columns of solid timber, glued laminated, composite and thin-webbed sections lateral stability requirements of timber structures design of mechanical connections subjected to lateral and/or axial forces design of moment resisting rigid and semi-rigid connections racking design of multi-storey platform framed walls Featuring numerous detailed worked examples, the second edition has been thoroughly updated and includes information on the consequences of amendments and revisions to EC5 published since the first edition, and the significant additional requirements of BSI non contradictory, complimentary information document (PD 6693-1-1) relating to EC5. The new edition also includes a new section on axial stress conditions in composite sections, covering combined axial and bending stress conditions and reference to the major revisions to the design procedure for glued laminated timber.
This first volume of eight from the IMAC-XXXII Conference, brings together contributions to this important area of research and engineering. The collection presents early findings and case studies on fundamental and applied aspects of Structural Dynamics, including papers on: Linear Systems Substructure Modelling Adaptive Structures Experimental Techniques Analytical Methods Damage Detection Damping of Materials & Members Modal Parameter Identification Modal Testing Methods System Identification Active Control Modal Parameter Estimation Processing Modal Data
Systems in timber engineering. Use of Cross laminated timber with two concrete examples" is my Final Project of Grade. This project summarizes the most common timber systems used over time. It studies thoroughly the wood product "Cross laminated timber", which is a relatively new wood product that was first introduced in the 1990's in Austria and has gained popularity in residential and non-residential buildings in many European countries and around the world in the recent past. Two specific projects of two existing single-family houses are designed with CLT solid wood panels. This paper is divided into three parts: In the first part an overview of the construction systems in timber construction is given. The systems are introduced, their characteristics and loadbearing performance are explained in a superficial way. The second part deals with Cross laminated timber. In this chapter, an extensive study of this wood system is carried out. X-LAM, its abbreviation, is introduced in many general aspects as a product. All the specific and technic information which is shown is, in particular, form the Austrian firm "KLH Massivholz Gmbh", which I had the pleasure and honour to visit. And in the final third part, two projects of two single-family houses are shown. Starting from a basic plan of the house, which have been obtained from two architects with which I'm truly grateful for their help, X-LAM system is used to design the house. Floor plans, sections, details and concrete component connections are designed.
Highlights: Racking performance of timber frame wall (OSB) and CLT walls has been conducted. Against lateral load, CLT walls is more resistant than OSB panel design. The number of internal rotational moments that are created in each shear plane of intersection in the wall is a key parameter. An analytical model evaluate the internal forces on each fastener. Abstract: This paper focuses mainly on the mechanical behaviour of unclassified cross-laminated timber walls under lateral loading (seismic and wind loads). Unclassified wooden planks were used to construct the wall unit with an odd number of layers (three) for each wall, with the planks in each layer in a perpendicular relative orientation. In this research, an experimental study of large-scale timber walls was carried out with a view to determining the lateral load resistance. Diagonal struts, under tension and compression were employed on the cross-laminated walls to investigate the effects of these elements on the lateral resistance of the wall. A theoretical approach has been developed to describe the overall behaviour of the cross-laminated wall and to investigate the internal forces on the fasteners. The present work is then compared to Oriented Strand Board (OSB) panel designs. Based on the data and results obtained from the experimental tests, this study confirms, firstly, that cross-laminated walls without a diagonal strut have approximately double the horizontal strength of (OSB) panels, secondly, that diagonal strut significantly increases the lateral load resistance of cross-laminated walls, particularly under compression conditions, and thirdly, the proposed theoretical approach shows similar performance to the average experimental test up to 100mm of overall lateral displacement of cross-laminated timber wall.
Note from the publisher: Now in its sixth edition, this bestselling reference focuses on the basic materials and methods used in building construction. Emphasizing common construction systems such as light wood frame, masonry bearing wall, steel frame, and reinforced concrete construction, the new edition includes new information on building materials properties; the latest on "pre-engineered" building components and sustainability issues; and reflects the latest building codes and standards. It also features an expanded series of case studies along with more axonometric detail drawings and revised photographs for a thoroughly illustrated approach.
Publisher's Note: Products purchased from Third Party sellers are not guaranteed by the publisher for quality, authenticity, or access to any online entitlements included with the product. The industry-standard guide to structural engineering—fully updated for the latest advances and regulations For 50 years, this internationally renowned handbook has been the go-to reference for structural engineering specifications, codes, technologies, and procedures. Featuring contributions from a variety of experts, the book has been revised to align with the codes that govern structural design and materials, including IBC, ASCE 7, ASCE 37, ACI, AISC, AASHTO, NDS, and TMS. Concise, practical, and user-friendly, this one-of-a-kind resource contains real-world examples and detailed descriptions of today’s design methods. Structural Engineering Handbook, Fifth Edition, covers: • Computer applications in structural engineering • Earthquake engineering • Fatigue, brittle fracture, and lamellar tearing • Soil mechanics and foundations • Design of steel structural and composite members • Plastic design of steel frames • Design of cold-formed steel structural members • Design of aluminum structural members • Design of reinforced- and prestressed-concrete structural members • Masonry construction and timber structures • Arches and rigid frames • Bridges and girder boxes • Building design and considerations • Industrial and tall buildings • Thin-shell concrete structures • Special structures and nonbuilding structures
“Green buildings” that slash energy use and carbon emissions are all the rage, but they aren’t enough. The hidden culprit is embodied carbon—the carbon emitted when materials are mined, manufactured, and transported—comprising some ten percent of global emissions. With the built environment doubling by 2030, buildings are a carbon juggernaut threatening to overwhelm the climate. It doesn’t have to be this way. Like never before in history, buildings can become part of the climate solution. With biomimicry and innovation, we can pull huge amounts of carbon out of the atmosphere and lock it up as walls, roofs, foundations, and insulation. We can literally make buildings out of the sky with a massive positive impact. The New Carbon Architecture is a paradigm-shifting tour of the innovations in architecture and construction that are making this happen. Office towers built from advanced wood products; affordable, low-carbon concrete alternatives; plastic cleaned from the oceans and turned into building blocks. We can even grow insulation from mycelium. A tour de force by the leaders in the field, The New Carbon Architecture will fire the imagination of architects, engineers, builders, policy makers, and everyone else captivated by the possibility of architecture to heal the climate and produce safer, healthier, and more beautiful buildings. Bruce King, a structural engineer for thirty-five years, is Founder and Director of the Ecological Building Network (EBNet) and author of Buildings of Earth and Straw, Making Better Concrete, and Design of Straw Bale Buildings. He lives in San Rafael, California.
7th International Conference on Advanced Materials and Engineering Materials (7th ICAMEM 2018) Selected, peer reviewed papers from the 7th International Conference on Advanced Materials and Engineering Materials (ICAMEM 2018), May 17-18, 2018, Bangkok, Thailand
A necessary purchase for level 1 and 2 undergraduates studying building/ construction materials modules, Materials for Architects and Builders provides an introduction to the broad range of materials used within the construction industry and contains information pertaining to their manufacture, key physical properties, specification and uses. Construction Materials is a core module on all undergraduate and diploma construction-related courses and this established textbook is illustrated in colour throughout with many photographs and diagrams to help students understand the key principles. This new edition has been completely revised and updated to include the latest developments in materials, appropriate technologies and relevant legislation. The current concern for the ecological effects of building construction and lifetime use are reflected in the emphasis given to sustainability and recycling. An additional chapter on sustainability and governmental carbon targets reinforces this issue.