A major contribution to both art history and Latin American studies, A Culture of Stone offers sophisticated new insights into Inka culture and the interpretation of non-Western art. Carolyn Dean focuses on rock outcrops masterfully integrated into Inka architecture, exquisitely worked masonry, and freestanding sacred rocks, explaining how certain stones took on lives of their own and played a vital role in the unfolding of Inka history. Examining the multiple uses of stone, she argues that the Inka understood building in stone as a way of ordering the chaos of unordered nature, converting untamed spaces into domesticated places, and laying claim to new territories. Dean contends that understanding what the rocks signified requires seeing them as the Inka saw them: as potentially animate, sentient, and sacred. Through careful analysis of Inka stonework, colonial-period accounts of the Inka, and contemporary ethnographic and folkloric studies of indigenous Andean culture, Dean reconstructs the relationships between stonework and other aspects of Inka life, including imperial expansion, worship, and agriculture. She also scrutinizes meanings imposed on Inka stone by the colonial Spanish and, later, by tourism and the tourist industry. A Culture of Stone is a compelling multidisciplinary argument for rethinking how we see and comprehend the Inka past.
In this unique study, Hampton describes the complete cultural inventory of both secular and sacred stones, ranging from utilitarian stone tools and profane symbolic stones to symbolic spirit stones, power stones with multiple functions, and medicinal power stone tools.
Louis Seymour Bazett Leakey (1903-72) was a British archaeologist, naturalist and palaeoanthropologist who made a significant contribution to the study of human evolutionary development. First published in 1931, this work presents the results of two periods of excavation by the East African Archaeological Expedition during 1926-7 and 1928-9. As noted in the preface, the findings of these excavations enabled the Expedition 'to work out a number of clear subdivisions in Pleistocene and recent times, based upon climatic changes, and to establish in most cases the relation of the cultures found to these time divisions.' The text contains numerous illustrative figures, including original drawings and photographs. Numerous appendices are also included. This book will be of value to anyone with an interest in archaeology, anthropology and East Africa.
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Far from the mainstream of society, the pastoral community of Chillihuani in the high Peruvian Andes rears children who are well-adjusted, creative, and curious. They exhibit superior social and cognitive skills and maintain an attitude of respect for all life as they progress smoothly from childhood to adulthood without a troubled adolescence. What makes such child-rearing success even more remarkable is that "childhood" is not recognized as a distinct phase of life. Instead, children assume adult rights and responsibilities at an early age in order to help the community survive in a rugged natural environment and utter material poverty. This beautifully written ethnography provides the first full account of child-rearing practices in the high Peruvian Andes. Inge Bolin traces children's lives from birth to adulthood and finds truly amazing strategies of child rearing, as well as impressive ways of living that allow teenagers to enjoy the adolescent stage of their lives while contributing significantly to the welfare of their families and the community. Throughout her discussion, Bolin demonstrates that traditional practices of respect, whose roots reach back to pre-Columbian times, are what enable the children of the high Andes to mature into dignified, resilient, and caring adults.
For companies, unethical business practices like bribery and corruption pose major business risks, and can result in fines, reputational damage, lost business opportunity and -- increasingly -- criminal or civil charges. Organisations have responded to this critical governance issue with rigorous formal integrity and compliance frameworks, to set out and enforce standards for ethical business practice. But companies also need to create an enduring culture of integrity that establishes doing the right thing as the cultural norm across the organisation -- and this requires more than compliance alone. 'Creating a Culture of Integrity' identifies the key actions sustainability and compliance officers can take to foster this cultural shift within their organisations. This 'one-stop' toolkit for embedding integrity also includes: 1) Inspiring best-practice case studies from companies who’ve implemented culture change, with insights on how they deal with ethical dilemmas when these arise and 2) Powerful arguments to help you make the business case for building a strong ethical culture around your compliance system.
This reference book studies the script, art, and culture of the early Arabic Kufic calligraphy. It presents around hundred historical stone inscriptions, coins, and manuscripts from early-Islamic Persia. In their book, the primary author and famed Iranian early Kufic expert and calligrapher, S.M.V. Mousavi Jazayeri, and his fellow co-authors read and analyze with meticulous detail the calligraphy, script, and art work of thirty-seven Kufic gravestone inscriptions, mainly from the Yazd providence of Iran. The carefully-selected inscriptional sample in this book illustrates the remarkable power and versatility of this early script, and the extent of the global role played by it in shaping societies and cultures of a vast area extending from China to Spain.
Ethnographic and archaeological records feature a rich body of data suggesting that understandings of the mineral world are in fact both culturally variable and highly diverse. Soils, Stones and Symbols highlights studies from the fields of anthropology, archaeology and philosophy that demonstrate that not all individuals and societies view minerals as commodities to be exploited for economic gain, or as passive objects of disembodied scientific enquiry. In visiting such diverse contexts as contemporary India, colonial-period Australia and prehistoric Europe and the Americas, the papers in this volume demonstrate that in pre-industrial societies, minerals are often symbolically meaningful, ritually powerful, and deeply interwoven into not just economic and material, but also social, cosmological, mythical, spiritual and philosophical aspects of life. In addressing the theme of the mineral world, this book is not only unique within the social and geo-sciences, but also at the forefront of recent attempts to demonstrate the importance of materiality to processes of human cognition and sociality. It draws upon theoretical developments relating to meaning, experience, the body, and material culture to demonstrate that studies of rock art, landscapes, architecture, technology and resource use are all linked through the minerals that constantly surround us and are the focus of our never-ending attempts to understand and transform them.
The goal of cultural psychology is to explain the ways in which human cultural constructions -- for example, rituals, stereotypes, and meanings -- organize and direct human acting, feeling, and thinking in different social contexts. A rapidly growing, international field of scholarship, cultural psychology is ready for an interdisciplinary, primary resource. Linking psychology, anthropology, sociology, archaeology, and history, The Oxford Handbook of Culture and Psychology is the quintessential volume that unites the variable perspectives from these disciplines. Comprised of over fifty contributed chapters, this book provides a necessary, comprehensive overview of contemporary cultural psychology. Bridging psychological, sociological, and anthropological perspectives, one will find in this handbook: - A concise history of psychology that includes valuable resources for innovation in psychology in general and cultural psychology in particular - Interdisciplinary chapters including insights into cultural anthropology, cross-cultural psychology, culture and conceptions of the self, and semiotics and cultural connections - Close, conceptual links with contemporary biological sciences, especially developmental biology, and with other social sciences - A section detailing potential methodological innovations for cultural psychology By comparing cultures and the (often differing) human psychological functions occuring within them, The Oxford Handbook of Culture and Psychology is the ideal resource for making sense of complex and varied human phenomena.
This book introduces the hands-on analysis of North American stone tools and prehistoric stone tool technology. It considers the types of tools, the materials from which they were crafted, and the methods by which they were produced. One chapter is devoted to the stone tools cultural history of the northern plains. Included are numerous illustrations and examples from previous fieldwork. Kooyman teaches archeology at the University of Calgary. Annotation copyrighted by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR.
Stone Age Economics is a classic of economic anthropology, ambitiously tackling the nature of economic life and how to study it comparatively. This collection of six influential essays is one of Marshall Sahlins' most important and enduring works, claiming that stone age economies formed the original affluent society. The book examines notions of production, distribution and exchange in early communities and examines the link between economics and cultural and social factors. This edition includes a new foreword by the author.
Overall, Clark provides a compelling picture of a contemporary Melanesian culture, at the critical point at which the Wiru people are interpreting, invoking, and reinventing their history in the context of a developing nation state."--Jacket.
Culture, Creativity and Environment: New Environmentalist Criticism is a collection of new work which examines the intersection between philosophy, literature, visual art, film and the environment at a time of environmental crisis. This book is unusual in the way in which the 'imaginative', 'creative', element is privileged, notwithstanding the creativity of rigorous cultural criticism. Genuinely interdisciplinary, this book aims to be inclusive in its discussions of diverse cultural media (different literary genres, art forms and film for instance), which offer thoughtful and thought-provoking critiques of our relationships with the environment. Our ability to transcend the ethical and aesthetic categories and discourses that have contributed to our alienation from our environment is dependant upon an enlargement of our imaginative capacities. In a modest way this book might contribute to what Ted Hughes, speaking of the imagination of each new child, described as “nature's chance to correct culture's error”.
Originally published in 1942, this book was based upon archaeological fieldwork carried out by the Harvard Archaeological Expedition to Ireland from 1932 to 1936. The aim of the Expedition 'was to embody in the field three of the techniques of modern anthropology - physical anthropology, social anthropology and archaeology - directed towards research on the same problem: the origin and development of the races and cultures of Ireland.' Numerous illustrative figures and reference lists are also included. This book will be of value to anyone with an interest in the prehistory of Ireland, archaeology and anthropology.
Covers the major Indo-European langauge stocks and their origins, and the conceptual range of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language. The text also offers entries on selected archaeological cultures with some relationship to the origin and dispersal of Indo-European groups, and on some of the major issues of Indo-European cultural studies.