Have you ever lain awake at night fretting over how we can be sure of the reality of the external world? Perhaps we are in fact disembodied brains, floating in vats at the whim of some deranged puppet-master? If so, you are not alone - and what's more, you are in exalted company. For this question and others like it have been the stuff of philosophical rumination for centuries, from Plato to Popper. In a series of accessible and engaging essays, 50 Philosophy Ideas You Really Need to Know introduces and explains the problems of knowledge, consciousness, identity, ethics, belief, justice and aesthetics that have troubled the minds of great thinkers for centuries, from the ancient Greeks to the present day. Contents include: The brain in a vat, Plato's cave, Cogito ergo sum, The mind-body problem, The boo/hurrah theory, Ends and means, The categorical imperative, Acts and omissions, The rights of animals, The gambler's fallacy, Paradigm shifts, Occam's razor, Positive and negative freedom, Theories of punishment and Just war.
Questions of ethics - about how we should act, our responsibilities to one another, the difference between right and wrong - have long been debated by philosophers the world over and form the foundations of government, culture and religion. Here, in concise, easy-to-read chapters, Ben Dupré explains the fundamentals of this discipline and how it is relevant to our lives today. Covering essential ethical concepts, including relativism, the golden rule and utilitarianism, as well as high-profile issues such as terrorism, censorship and the death penalty, 50 Ethics Ideas You Really Need to Know will lead you through the moral maze - and rattle your conscience in the process. The ideas explored include: Free will Animal liberation Right and wrong Torture Genetic engineering The environment The sanctity of life Poverty
Science first began as a branch of philosophy, but it has since grown up and moved out of the family home, and its successes have put its parent in the shade. Thanks to scientific knowledge we have walked on the Moon, cured once-fatal illnesses, and even identified the very building blocks of life and the universe. But it is these very successes that underline the need for philosophy. How much should we trust the pronouncements of scientists that we read in the media? What are the ethical implications of our delving into the foundations of our DNA, reproductive treatments, or artificially prolonging life? And are there limits to what science can tell us about the world we think we know? In straightforward and accessible terms, 50 Philosophy of Science Ideas You Really Need to Know explains the key philosophical questions that continue to lie at the heart of the nature and practice of science today. The ideas explored include: Appearance and reality; Knowledge; Anti-realism; Metaphysics; Science and gender; Phenomenology and science.
50 Big Ideas You Really Need to Know is a concise, accessible and popular guide to the central tenets of Western thought. Every important principle of philosophy, religion, politics, economics, the arts and the sciences is profiled in a series of short illustrated essays, complemented by an informative array of timelines and box features.
Questions of ethics - about how we should act, our responsibilities to one another, the difference between right and wrong - have long been debated by philosophers the world over and form the foundations of government, culture and religion. Here, in concise, easy-to-read chapters, Ben Dupré explains the fundamentals of this discipline and how it is relevant to our lives today. Covering essential ethical concepts, including relativism, the golden rule and utilitarianism, as well as high-profile issues such as terrorism, censorship and the death penalty, 50 Ethics Ideas You Really Need to Know will lead you through the moral maze - and rattle your conscience in the process.
People often complain that in history lessons at school they were taught just a few topics - the Romans, the Tudors, the Nazis - and how they have no idea at all about what happened in between. To remedy this, World History: 50 Key Milestones You Really Need to Know offers brief and stimulating outlines of key developments in the history of the world, from the beginning of agriculture 10,000 years ago to the attack on the Twin Towers on 9/11. Each essay is accompanied by a detailed time line of dates and events, and the flavour of the period concerned is brought to life by selected contemporary quotations from figures as diverse as Aristotle, Saladin, Christopher Columbus, Suleiman the Magnificent, Galileo, Voltaire, Thomas Jefferson, Mary Wollstonecraft, Napoleon, Abraham Lincoln and Winston Churchill. In addition, box features throw light on a range of related topics, from Confucianism and the state to Alexander the Great's horse, and from Islamic science to the Enigma code and the atomic bomb.
A guide to everything you need and want to know about quantum physics, how our universe works and our existence in it. Quantum physics is the most cutting-edge, important and fascinating area of modern science. We have all heard of Einstein's theory of relativity and Schrodinger's Cat - but do we really understand the mind-bending theories of our universe? In 50 concise chapters, Joanne Baker covers the foundation concepts of quantum physics and moves on to present clear explanations of complex theories and their advanced applications - from string theory to black holes, and quarks to quantum computing. With informative two-colour illustrations alongside key ideas in straightforward, bite-sized chunks, this book will teach you everything you need to know about quantum physics - and challenge the way you understand the world. The ideas explored include: Theory of relativity; Schrödinger's cat; Nuclear forces: fission and fusion; Antimatter; Superconductivity.
The need to understand religion and the role it plays in our world has never been more pressing. The beliefs and actions of the planet's 2 billion Christians, 1.2 billion Muslims, 800 million Hindus and 700 million followers of other religions has an impact on every aspect of war and peace, ethics, politics, reproduction, family and social structure across every civilization and continent. 50 Religion Ideas You Really Need to Know aims to lift the clouds of confusion surrounding religion and to address its key issues. What is the 'Golden Rule' and how does it unite religious people? How did the divisions arise between Catholics and Protestants and what do they mean for us today? What are the differences between Anglicanism, Methodism, Baptism and Presbyterianism? What separates Sunni Muslims from Shi'a Muslims? What does it mean to be Jewish? Award-winning writer Peter Stanford answers these and a myriad other questions in 50 Religion Ideas You Really Need to Know. Both readable and informative, it will appeal to anyone who wants to understand one of the most powerful and enduring forces shaping our world.
Have you ever wondered what Kant might have to say about your addiction to social media? Or whether Plato would be able to help resolve your constant arguments about what to watch on TV? Or if Hobbes would agree to feed your pet hamster while you're away on holiday? When it comes to the really important questions, who better to ask than the greatest political minds in history, with What Would Marx Do? Using 40 everyday questions and problems as springboards for exploring the great political questions of our time, this book will give you a crash course in political philosophy, and an introduction to the theories and ideas of the greatest political philosophers of all time. Includes questions such as: -Should I bother to vote? -Who should look after the baby? -Do you earn enough? -My car has just been stolen! But can I hold the thieves responsible? -Should I watch what I say on Twitter? -Should your children benefit from your success? -Is it wrong to want a bigger house? With quirky illustrations and intriguing and original takes on the biggest (and smallest) everyday questions, What Would Marx Do? is guaranteed to leave you with a better grasp on political philosophy, and able to discuss Marxism, Libertarian Socialism and Populism with ease.
Can you master the ideas of Plato, Kant, Nietzsche and Sartre? What does 'I think, therefore I am' really mean? Do you know the arguments for and against the existence of god? And what do the great philosophers tell us about knowledge and truth, good and evil? Take Get Smart: Philosophy and learn to think and talk like history's greatest philosophical minds. Packed with bite-sized briefings, shortcuts and bluffs, Get Smart: Philosophy demystifies 50 key philosophical concepts and provides you with all you need to speak out about the very biggest ideas, including: The nature of reality; Free will; Ethics; Philosophy of the mind; Justice and liberty; Relativism; Utilitarianism; Capitalism and democracy; Paradoxes and fallacies; The Social Contract; Existentialism; Metaphysics; Chinese philosophy; Beauty and art; Artificial intelligence; Human rights; Analytic, Linguistic and Continental philosophy . . . and many more.
An anthology of 50 classic philosophy works with an active table of contents to make it easy to quickly find the book you are looking for. Works include: As A Man Thinketh by James Allen The Age of Reason by Thomas Paine Alcibiades I by Plato Alexandria and her Schools by Charles Kingsley An 'Attic' Philosopher by Emile Souvestre An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding by David Hume An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Taste, and of the Origin of our Ideas of Beauty, etc. by Frances Reynolds An Essay on the Beautiful by Plotinus An Introduction to Philosophy by George Stuart Fullerton The Analects of Confucius by James Legge The Analysis of Mind by Bertrand Russell The Ancient East by D. G. Hogarth SUN TZU ON THE ART OF WAR by Sun Tzu The Basis of Morality by Annie Besant Bergson and His Philosophy by J. Alexander Gunn Beyond Good and Evil by Friedrich Nietzsche The Book of Tea by Kakuzo Okakura Book of Wise Sayings by W. A. Clouston The Breath of Life by John Burroughs Bushido, the Soul of Japan by Inazo Nitobé The Conditions of Existence as Affecting the Perpetuation of Living Beings by Thomas H. Huxley The Complete Angler 1653 by Isaak Walton The Conquest of Fear by Basil King Cosmic Consciousness by Ali Nomad Creative Unity by Rabindranath Tagore The Critique of Practical Reason by Immanuel Kant Death by Maurice Maeterlinck Hints Towards the Formation of a More Comprehensive Theory of Life by Samuel Taylor Coleridge A History of Freedom of Thought by John Bagnell Bury History of Mediaeval Jewish Philosophy by Isaac Husik The Idea of God in Early Religions by F. B. Jevons Initiation into Philosophy by Emile Faguet Introduction to the Philosophy and Writings of Plato by Thomas Taylor Kant's Theory of Knowledge by Harold Arthur Prichard The Law and the Word by Thomas Troward Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes Man And Superman by George Bernard Shaw On the Duty of Civil Disobedience by Henry David Thoreau Pragmatism by William James Principles of Philosophy by Rene Descartes Thoughts of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus by Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Tragic Sense of Life by Miguel de Unamuno What is Property? by P. J. Proudhon Where No Fear Was: A Book About Fear by Arthur Christopher Benson Within You is the Power by Henry Thomas Hamblin Fundamental Principals of the Metaphysic of Morals by Immanuel Kant Thus Spake Zarathustra by Friedrich Nietzsche A Treatise of Human Nature by David Hume The Problems of Philosophy by Bertrand Russell The Ethics by Benedict de Spinoza
A full-colour illustrated tour through philosophy’s most famous – and most mind-bending – ideas I Think Therefore I Am, Existentialism, Dialectical Materialism? The Socratic Method and Deconstruction? Sure, you know what they all mean. That is, you’ve certainly heard of them. But do you know enough about them to join a dinner party debate or dazzle the bar with your knowledge? 30-SECOND PHILOSOPHIES takes a revolutionary approach to getting a grip on the 50 most significant schools of philosophy. The book challenges leading thinkers to quit fretting about the meaning of meaning for a while and explain the most complex philosophical ideas – using nothing more than two pages, 300 words, and a metaphorical image. Here, in one unique volume, you have the chance to pick the potted brains of our leading philosophers and understand complex concepts such as Kant’s Categorical Imperative without ending up in a darkened room with an ice pack on your head.
For over 2000 years, philosophy has been our best guide to the experience of being human, and the true nature of reality. From Aristotle, Plato, Epicurus, Confucius, Cicero and Heraclitus in ancient times to 17th century rationalists Descartes, Leibniz and Spinoza, from 20th-century greats Jean-Paul Sartre, Jean Baudrillard and Simone de Beauvoir to contemporary thinkers Michael Sandel, Peter Singer and Slavoj Zizek, 50 Philosophy Classics explores key writings that have shaped the discipline and had an impact on the real world. Philosophy can no longer be confined to academia, and 50 Philosophy Classics shows how powerful it can be as a tool for opening our minds and helping us think. Whether you are fascinated or daunted by the big questions of how to think, how to be, how to act and how to see, this is the perfect introduction to some of humanity's greatest minds and their landmark books.
'This book aims high; its aspiration and rationale are to be welcomed and applauded....an original and valuable contribution to the literature of early childhood education' - Early Years '"Early Childhood Education" is an extremely valuable and informative book that emphasises the role of history and philosophy in current early childhood practices....this book is accessible, clearly structured and an essential reference for students of Childhood Studies. I would highly recommend this text as an introduction' - ESCalate 'This book makes a refreshing change to a lot of textbooks....It's easy to read, in short chunks, and you don't want to put it down. Well worth investing in this book. I would give this book 9 out of 10' - The National Childminding Association 'This book is an essential, informative read for practitioners and policymakers alike. It encourages reflection, prompts discussion and dialogue and facilitates the building of a common understanding through making us all aware of whose shoulders we are standing on' - Early Years Update 'Every Early Childhood practitioner and policy-maker should keep a copy of this book on their shelves...a thought provoking, and highly informative celebration of the ideas of our field's pioneers. If we are to understand ourselves and our times, and to provide lovingly meaningful experiences for today's young children, we need to understand their web of philosophical legacies and the links with our own' - Professor Tricia David, Emeritus Professor Canterbury Christ Church University and Honorary Emeritus Professor, University of Sheffield This book explores the ideas behind the policies and practices in Early Childhood Education to help give students and practitioners a fuller understanding of the settings in which they work. The authors bring together ideas from the work and writings of major historical figures who have significantly shaped Early Childhood current practices to illustrate the rich history of this ever developing field. Using imaginative tools to bring alive the ideas of past pioneers, the authors show how our understanding of contemporary issues has been influenced by the pioneers. The book also shows how today's practitioners themselves become the pioneers of future development. This book is for all students of Early Childhood Education including those on BA and MA courses, as well as Early Years trainee teachers. It is also relevant to practitioners involved in self - or organisational development.
What do Socrates, Hypatia, Giordano Bruno, Thomas More, and Jan Patocka have in common? First, they were all faced one day with the most difficult of choices: stay faithful to your ideas and die or renounce them and stay alive. Second, they all chose to die. Their spectacular deaths have become not only an integral part of their biographies, but are also inseparable from their work. A "death for ideas" is a piece of philosophical work in its own right; Socrates may have never written a line, but his death is one of the greatest philosophical best-sellers of all time. Dying for Ideas explores the limit-situation in which philosophers find themselves when the only means of persuasion they can use is their own dying bodies and the public spectacle of their death. The book tells the story of the philosopher's encounter with death as seen from several angles: the tradition of philosophy as an art of living; the body as the site of self-transcending; death as a classical philosophical topic; taming death and self-fashioning; finally, the philosophers' scapegoating and their live performance of a martyr's death, followed by apotheosis and disappearance into myth. While rooted in the history of philosophy, Dying for Ideas is an exercise in breaking disciplinary boundaries. This is a book about Socrates and Heidegger, but also about Gandhi's "fasting unto death" and self-immolation; about Girard and Passolini, and self-fashioning and the art of the essay.
Starting Up is a collection of first-person accounts by some of the best-known founders of new schools in America. Providing the kind of knowledge that only experience can teach, it is an invaluable resource for anyone in the process of or thinking about opening a new school, as well as those interested in the politics of today’s era of new school development. The authors share how they worked to make their educational aspirations a reality while wrestling with social and economic obstacles, such as the distressed state of the communities in which these schools operated and the constant competition for resources. Starting Up tells real stories that capture the rich sense of possibility that currently exists for urban education. Book Features: Behind the scenes accounts from the founders of innovative K–12 schools created to better serve primarily poor communities across the country. Lessons learned from school leaders, including both the rewards and challenges associated with starting a new school. An introduction by Pedro Noguera that situates start ups within current economic and political realities. Lisa Arrastía is the middle school principal at United Nations International School in New York. Her work in the classroom is the focus of the Emmy-nominated PBS documentary Making the Grade. Marvin Hoffman is the founding director of The University of Chicago Charter School, North Kenwood/Oakland campus and the associate director of the University’s Urban Teacher Education Program. “These are educators who recognize that although urban public schools are often deeply flawed and dysfunctional, they don’t have to be, and they are educators who act on the belief that it is possible to create schools that nurture and support the hopes and aspirations of those they serve.” —From the Foreword by Pedro Noguera, New York University “How might we reimagine our schools? This book offers a guide from those who have experienced firsthand the trials and tribulations of trying to create a school from the bottom up. It asks all the right questions, both the practical and the pedagogical. It feels like essential reading as we reconsider how our urban schools should look and function.” —Alex Kotlowitz, bestselling author of There Are No Children Here and The Other Side of the River
50 Business Classics presents the key ideas from classic texts such as My Years with General Motors and Michael Gerber's The E-Myth Revisited to contemporary business ideas seen in the rise of the tech giants like Google, Apple and Amazon. It contains revealing biographies of luminaries like Steve Jobs and Katherine Graham, as well as lesser-known stories including creation of publishing giant Penguin and Chinese behemoth Alibaba. Here you'll find the texts and ideas that matter in: · Entrepreneurship · Leadership · Management · Strategy · Business history · Personal development · Technology and innovation Summarizing the smartest thinking for today's professional success, this book will provide inspiration and insights for entrepreneurs, executives and students of business and management alike.
What is science? Is there a real difference between science and myth? Is science objective? Can science explain everything? This Very Short Introduction provides a concise overview of the main themes of contemporary philosophy of science. Beginning with a short history of science to set the scene, Samir Okasha goes on to investigate the nature of scientific reasoning, scientific explanation, revolutions in science, and theories such as realism and anti-realism. He also looks at philosophical issues in particular sciences, including the problem of classification in biology, and the nature of space and time in physics. The final chapter touches on the conflicts between science and religion, and explores whether science is ultimately a good thing. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
"Ethics, Humans and Other Animals: An Introduction with Readings is an introductory textbook on the ethics of our treatment of animals. It requires no prior knowledge of philosophy and is ideally suited to those coming to philosophy and ethical problems for the first time." "Rosalind Hursthouse carefully introduces the three standard approaches in current ethical theory, utilitarianism, rights, and virtue ethics, clearly explaining how each approach seeks to answer questions about our treatment of animals. Chapters are linked to readings illustrative of each approach, and students are encouraged to think critically about the writings of such authors as Peter Singer, Tom Regan and Mary Midgley for themselves."--Jacket.